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Cut the onion into small pieces, cut the zucchini in half and then the slices, and slice the mushrooms and bell peppers. Put a little oil in a frying pan, put the chilli and cook a little, then remove the onion, pepper, zucchini and mushrooms from the oil and cook a little, then add the finely chopped tomatoes, tomato juice and leave. on the fire ~ 10 min after which add the crushed garlic, parsley and basil, add salt and pepper and remove from the heat.
The pasta is boiled in salted water after which it is mixed with the sauce and put on the fire again for ~ 1 min. Serve with grated Parmesan cheese on top (they are good and without Parmesan cheese if you make them on an empty stomach)
you can sauté in the pan with a little garlic, onion, optional (I rarely use onions, because it gives me bonjour) a little minced meat, possibly 1-2 tomatoes.
then make polenta, line a hyena bowl with polenta, pour the mixture above, cover with polenta, and bake in the oven, possibly with a little Parmesan.
put the mixture with salt, pepper and other spices to taste. for more Mexican, use hot peppers.
or vegetarian lasagna. you can also add 2-3 potatoes. also sautéed in the pan. make layers with lasagna sheets, vegetables, a little bechamel, parmesan, and tomato sauce.
or pie with commercial sheets, or with any dough from the kitchen, sauté the vegetables, put 1-2 eggs, cheese and roll.
# 5 Cold
Or the exceptional tacos, burritos, fajitas. Somewhere on the forum, the issue was debated and developed by Yandira. Without claiming that it is a real Mexican recipe (I imagine so), I proceed like this:
I buy tortillas from the store (in Bucharest I found the perfect ones at & quotCora & quot), also from there I buy a packet of spice mixture for fajitas and poultry or turkey. The vegetables can be fresh or frozen except for the salad which will always be fresh.
Cut the meat (500g) into cubes and mix with the spices.
Fry in a pan then remove to a plate
Put the vegetables in the pan, obviously cut into cubes and cook, quenching with a little soup.
Add the meat and eventually adjust to taste
Heat the tortillas in the microwave. I moisten them first, place them on a plate, cover them and then put them in the oven.
I take a sheet (I also made pancakes a little thicker, obviously without sugar - the result: perfectly good) in the middle I mix vegetables and meat, salad, grated cheese, finely chopped Chinese cabbage, a sauce or even sour cream, roll after which at the bottom was folded once so that the sauce does not drain and is eaten.
I also make a good tomato salad.
I repeat, it may not be a 100% true Mexican recipe, but I eat it with great pleasure.
# 6 nenea Radu
I repeat, it may not be a 100% true Mexican recipe, but I eat it with great pleasure.
# 7 camay06
# 8 Cold
# 9 camay06
# 10 star
Help of the porter
# 11 nenea Radu
# 12 Yandira
Look, Yandira has arrived, who is even more ignorant than you. Now that I'm coming to Romania, I'm going to a "Mexican" restaurant to find out what Mexican food is there. I'm not arrogant or omniscient, but I'll tell you what I've learned here for so many years. The mixture you are talking about is totally unknown in Mexico. Bell peppers are only used in Mexico for salads, and that's just for the more cosmopolitan world. Stella's recipe would be the most similar to a Mexican recipe because in the Mexican rice you put cubes of CARROTS AND PEAS AND A SMALL hot pepper, so, just thrown in the rice to boil. After washing the rice well with warm water a few times, dry it, fry it in a lot of oil for a short time only to become translucent, and then throw away all the oil and put the chicken soup (two cups of soup for one of rice ). But in the chicken soup add tomatoes mixed with onion and garlic and salt and then strained, so that only liquid remains to be boiled, otherwise a sticky rice would be made and here they like to stay dry, grain by grain. Put on a low heat, with a lid and between the lid and the pan to put a napkin or aluminum foil, so that it remains tight. When it is almost ready (al dente) turn off the heat and leave it like this for 10-15 minutes and it will bake on its own. This Mexican rice is a ritual.
I told you this yellow corn is not eaten in Mexico. They give it to pigs because it is too hard, according to their taste. It is canned now, in the American fashion, to eat as a side dish, but they don't like it because they think it's sweet. The only Mexican dish I found recently is a jalapeño pepper sauce that I put in the picture, cut long slices with onion cream and finally yellow corn kernels. But this way was without corn at first. Of course, many women in the city use it because they are looking for culinary novelties. Corn in Mexico is white and quite soft. It is eaten boiled through more acidic mayonnaise and then rolled in grated cheese. It is delicious and is sold on all streets. Ah, obviously with red hot pepper powder on top
Fredi's recipe is very good and quite similar to a Mexican burito.
Now about the sauces. They never use white sauce, bechamel. In Mexican food the sauces are extremely varied but not with milk but with tomatoes or greens or browns (from hot peppers). I am talking about traditional food, which exists in all provinces. Obviously, in the big cities you can eat pasta, lasagna, meats with the most sophisticated sauces, as in any country. But here is VERY understandable their food, traditional, is unbelievable. I have the impression that it is somehow like in India (I don't know that I haven't been, but I think so) And if you go out in the capital you can only eat European food in restaurants in the provincial capitals. And that's not all.
Nenea Radu, I don't know what corn pancake you ate: dontknow: I've been thinking since you first wrote and: banghead: Do you mean corn ground as an ingredient in the pancake or put as a filling? Did you eat it in Mexico? The pancake is known in Mexico only as a dessert, Crepes Suzette in restaurants. In general, Mexicans do not know how to make a pancake, but now this has also changed because in restaurants and the city people have started to like them.
I always aim to take my son's camera (who knows how to spell it) and take a walk through the market to take pictures. But then I thought it would be too much effort on my part and I don't think anyone would be interested. Now that I'm going to take pictures in Romania, maybe I'll stay in the habit in Mexico and I'll take pictures too.
Method of preparation
Cut the eggplant into cubes, salt, pepper, and drain in a strainer for about 30 minutes.
Always keep 4 things in mind when making pasta:
1. The pot in which the pasta will boil should be large! Pasta needs a lot of boiling water, otherwise it sticks to each other, softens and will never come out "al dente"!
2. After we put the water to boil, we deal exclusively with the preparation of the sauce, and only after the sauce is ready or almost ready, we can add the pasta to the boil!
3. It is good to take into account the cooking time written on the package only as a guide, because it is different from one type of pasta to another,
but in my long experience, it's never real time: put in an extra 2 minutes and it's ok!
4. "Al dente " means that the pasta must be cooked, but not boiled, not soaked in water, not fried, but not raw when you try them, the core must not be floury!
After they have drained well, put the eggplant pieces in a Teflon pan and fry them in oil, carefully turning them from side to side. (Since eggplants swallow a lot of oil, they can also be fried with sunflower oil.) After we fry them, we take them out and place them on a paper kitchen napkin that still absorbs fat!
In a deep bowl, but not too big, put olive oil, garlic cloves cut in half, lightly brown them, then pour the tomato broth, season with salt, pepper, cover and let it simmer, stirring. occasionally.
When the water boils we can add the pasta with 1-2 tablespoons of salt and let it boil over low heat until it becomes "al dente".
Strain the pasta well, place them in the pot, add the tomato sauce, chopped basil, eggplant, mix everything, and serve immediately with plenty of grated Parmesan cheese!
Striped sedans with vegetables - Recipes
Publication of the amended single document following the approval of a minor amendment in accordance with the second subparagraph of Article 53 (2) of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010. 1151/2012
The European Commission approved this minor amendment pursuant to the third subparagraph of Article 6 (2) of Delegated Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010. Commission Regulation (EC) No 664/2014 (1).
The application for approval of this minor change may be consulted in the Commission's Ambrosia database.
Nr. EU: PGI-IT-01333-AM01 - 1.10.2019
2. Member State or third country
3. Description of the agricultural or food product
Class 1.2 .: Meat products (prepared, salted, smoked, etc.)
3.2. Description of the product to which the name in (1) applies
The name 'Mortadella di Prato' identifies a sausage composed of pork paste, sea salt, garlic, spices and Alchermes (or Alkermes, in a proportion between 0.3 and 0.6%) these ingredients are introduced in a membrane and subjected to heat treatment. At the time of marketing, the product has the following characteristics: weight - between 0.5 and 10 kg shape - cylindrical or slightly elliptical dimensions - length between 8 and 70 cm, and diameter between 6 and 35 cm organoleptic characteristics - the consistency of the paste is firm , compact, tender due to fine grinding the color on the outside is pink, tending to opaque the color on the inside is dark pink, thanks to the coloring action of Alchermes liqueur, with white spots due to fat cubes the perfume has a pronounced aroma of spices with a note of Alchermes from the first contact the taste is typical of the product and is due to the contrast between the warm and pungent taste of spices, garlic and sea salt and the sweet and delicate liqueur Alchermes chemical-physical characteristics - the lipid / protein ratio is maximum 1.5.
3.3. Feed (only for products of animal origin) and raw materials (only for processed products)
Feed for pigs intended for the production of 'Mortadella di Prato' must preferably be in the form of sides or pasta and must have a dry matter content of at least 45% for live pigs weighing up to 80 kg and at least 55% for fattening pigs. Consumption of whey (by-product derived from clots) and buttermilk (by-product of butter processing) must not exceed 15 l / head of animal / day).
'Mortadella di Prato' is produced using exclusively the following pieces of meat, in the proportions indicated: shoulder - between 40 and 50% bacon - between 9 and 15% leftover ham - between 10 and 20% neck - between 5 and 15 % goiter - between 5 and 15% chest - between 5 and 10%. Mandatory ingredients are: Alchermes - between 0.3 and 0.6% ground pepper - between 0.1 and 0.3% peppercorns - between 0.1 and 0.2% sea salt - between 2.0 and 3.0% spices ground (coriander, cinnamon, nutmeg, mace and cloves) - between 0.1 and 0.25% garlic - between 0.08 and 0.2%. The use of preservatives is permitted in accordance with legal regulations. The addition of sodium glutamate is prohibited.
The meat used must come from pigs weighing at least 160 kg (± 10%) and over 9 months of age at the time of slaughter. The interval between the slaughter of pigs and the processing of meat must be between a minimum of 24 hours and a maximum of 96 hours.
3.4. Specific steps in production that must take place in the identified geographical area
The next stages of production of 'Mortadella di Prato' must take place in the defined geographical area, in continuous succession, without breaks: shaping, grinding and kneading, filling and tying, steaming and boiling, rinsing and cooling.
3.5. Specific rules regarding slicing, scraping, packaging, etc. of the product to which the registered name relates
The time between cooling (followed by drying) and the first vacuum packing cannot exceed 20 minutes. In addition to the fact that it generates a risk of microbial proliferation, non-compliance with this time interval would have the effect of irreparably altering the delicate organoleptic balance of the product, compromising its aroma and changing its characteristic rose color.
The product may be repackaged, in the form of pieces or slices, in trays, in vacuum or in a modified atmosphere, including outside the defined geographical area.
'Mortadella di Prato' may be marketed in its entirety, in pieces or sliced, vacuum-packed, in a modified atmosphere, in a tray.
3.6. Specific rules concerning the labeling of the product to which the registered name relates
The package must bear, in clear and legible characters, the logo reproduced below, consisting of an oval-shaped image, intersected at the bottom by the perimeter of a rectangular box, which changes the outline of the oval, merging with it and forming a unique image.
4. Concise delimitation of the geographical area
The area where the production and first packaging of the product 'Mortadella di Prato' takes place covers the entire territory of the commune of Prato and the communes of Agliana, Quarrata and Montale in the province of Pistoia.
5. The connection with the geographical area
The territory of Prato commune is characterized by a rational use of the waters that cross it, whether it is the Bisenzio river or other torrents. The need to capitalize on the vast and fertile alluvial plain, as well as the notion that its water resources can be exploited to produce energy for the operation of mills and machines of the textile industry emerged in the twelfth century and led to the construction of so-called "Gore", a vast network of artificial canals that crosses the plain of Prato commune and extends to the territories of the neighboring communes Agliana, Quarrata and Montale, located in the province of Pistoia. In addition to providing energy, artificial canals and torrents have also allowed the development of the art of butchers since the medieval era ("L'Arte dei Beccai"), an activity that, for reasons of hygiene, requires, like the job of a painter, large quantities of running water. This is the time when the processing and use of pork was asserted, which enjoyed great notoriety and was an important element of the economy, being the main source of food in winter. Each peasant family raised its own pig, and wealthy townspeople resorted to the pension system, which entrusted the peasants with animals for fattening, agreeing that they would do "a mezzo di ciò che Dio ne fa", ie two out of the way the Lord gives. to grow. The annual consumption of pork continued to be significant in the following centuries, so that the sausages ("sausages") of Prato became a category with a considerable reputation, subject to a specific tax, due to the impressive turnovers already achieved at the time. respectively from the sale of sausages. The particular hydrographic configuration of the territory favored the secular rapprochement between the ancient profession of painter, which is due to the first use of the cochineal and the profession of butcher, which is due to the subsequent use of the extremely famous "grana del tintore" (painter's grains), for coloring and flavoring of dishes, including sausages.
'Mortadella di Prato' has a reputation based primarily on the use of Alchermes liqueur, which, by contrasting its sweet and delicate taste with the warm, spicy taste of spices, garlic and sea salt, gives the product absolutely original organoleptic characteristics. Traditional local skill strengthens this specificity thanks to: choosing the most suitable pieces of meat for cooking, achieving a strong cohesion of the mixture, by combining proteins from connective tissues with sugars contained in Alchermes, better protection of fats against rancidity, obtained thanks to bacteria and antioxidants of the mixture of ground spices, black pepper, garlic and sea salt, as well as ensuring a slow and gradual drying of the product, due to the steaming that precedes boiling. All these aspects, taken together, make this product a unique Italian gastronomic landscape.
The presence of Alchermes liqueur as a characteristic ingredient in 'Mortadella di Prato' is a clear indicator of the origin and exclusive affiliation of the latter to the territory of the municipality of Prato. Alchermes is a bright red liqueur once obtained exclusively from cochineal, a parasitic insect dried and ground in powder form, which for centuries has been used to dye fabrics, the main economic activity traditionally carried out on the banks of artificial canals. the town of Prato and the territory of the commune of the same name. The good knowledge of the cochineal in the commune of Prato gave rise to a great flexibility in the use of this dye, which spread from the textile sector to food and medicine. In particular, the culinary use of Alchermes liqueur has been preserved, present both in sausages and in local pastries ('pesche di Prato', Prato peaches). This specificity, together with the fact that the producers in Prato have been able to maintain traditional production methods, has helped to strengthen the reputation of 'Mortadella di Prato', an undisputed reputation, supported by comprehensive documentation. The first reliable documents referring to "Mortadella di Prato", as a product originating in the city of Prato, date from 1733 and were written on the occasion of the beatification of Mother Caterina de 'Ricci, when the nuns of the Dominican monastery in Prato prepared a lunch for guests in which product figured as a local specialty. We find "Mortadella di Prato" mentioned with this name in 1854, in the correspondence of Guasti-Pierallini, in the articles of the newspaper "Lo Zenzero" from 1862 and throughout the nineteenth century in economic publications ("L'Italia economica", from 1868 , 'L'Italia all'opera', 1869), in reports in Italian, English and French for the international exhibitions in London and Paris, as well as in a note by a French police commissioner on the export of the product to France (1867), confirming the reputation he acquired. A report by a curator for the London International Exposition states, for example, that "Outside (ie abroad), Mortadella di Prato and Mortadella di Bologna give names to the whole category". There are also numerous references to "Mortadella di Prato" in the twentieth century, in a series of publications that go beyond local cookbooks and make their way into the publishing sector, the national daily press and the national gastronomic universe. and internationally, thus attesting to a significant increase in the reputation of this product. Its specific characteristics have made the product mentioned in numerous cookbooks and gastronomic guides at local, national and international level, including the first edition of the volume "Guida gastronomica d'Italia" (Gastronomic Guide of Italy), published by Touring Club Italiano in 1931. His fame is also linked to the great interest shown by renowned chefs and well-known figures of international culture and gastronomy, such as the writer Manuel Vázquez Montalbán. In addition, 'Mortadella di Prato' was promoted as an authentic expression of the gastronomic tradition of the commune of Prato by associations such as the Accademia della cucina italiana (1987) and by Slow Food, which in 2000 instituted a form of protection ('presidio ”) Of the product. As early as the 18th century, there was a local custom of enjoying "Mortadella di Prato" accompanied by figs, and in traditional cuisine it was used as an ingredient in many typical recipes, including "sedani alla pratese" (celery as in Prato ). The product is regularly presented at fairs, even at international ones, and is not absent from the local event entitled “Di Vini Profumi. Between drinking and knowledge, culture and flavors of the province of Prato ”.
PUGLIESE PASTA WITH TUNA AND BROCOLI
Who hasn't had to, or rather had to (you know ladies say)) quickly prepare something to eat? Tasty recipes from RIO MARE help us. Canned tuna, sardines, mackerel or salmon are so tasty! Today I propose a very fragrant food that is ready as you would say "RIO MARE"!
Apulian pasta with tuna and broccoli
Ingredients for four people:
350g paste Barilla Sedani Rigati
1 can of Rio Mare Tuna with 160g olive oil
500g fresh broccoli
2 cloves of garlic
30g extra virgin olive oil Bertolli
30 g race parmesan
1 small hot pepper
Method of preparation:
Boil a pot of water and salt.
Unwrap the broccoli in flowers and cut the stem into cubes. Put the pasta and broccoli in the same pot, they have the same cooking time, and the pasta will steal a little of the vegetable flavor.
Cut sliced onions, sliced or finely chopped garlic, as desired, and hot pepper. If you like it more spicy, do not clean it of seeds. Put them all with oil in a larger frying pan.
Drain the pasta and broccoli and pour into the pan with the sautéed mixture. Add the Parmesan cheese, stir on the fire for a minute, add the lightly drained tuna and serve immediately.
PS: They are called "alla pugliese" because in the Puglia region they make a traditional hot soup with pasta and broccoli.
Striped sedans with vegetables - Recipes
Macaroni pudding with leek and tomato sauce
It is a perfect choice for those who want to cook something other than meat. For a balanced meal, start with a root vegetable soup and serve the pudding with a lettuce and crispy bread.
- 675 g leek 85 g macaroni or grated penne (penne with striations) 1 tablespoon extra virgin olive oil 30 g watercress 225 g cottage cheese, drained 55 g fresh grated Parmesan cheese 3 eggs 1 slice soft bread, with grains 2 teaspoons English mustard a freshly grated nutmeg powder, salt and peppercorns, for garnish
Preheat the oven to 180 ° C. Carefully remove 6 outer layers from the leek and set aside, then thinly slice what is left.
Bring a large pot of water to a boil over high heat. Boil the outer layers of leeks for 3-4 minutes or until soft. Use a foamer to remove the leeks and then rinse under cold running water. It is set aside. Add the pasta to the pot, bring the water back to the boil and boil for 10-12 minutes or according to the instructions on the package, until they are al dente. They drain well.
While the pasta is boiling, heat the oil in a pan and fry the sliced leeks over high heat for 4-5 minutes or until all the liquid has evaporated.
In a blender, make the leek puree with the watercress, cottage cheese, parmesan, eggs, bread, mustard, nutmeg, salt and pepper. The mixture must be creamy and homogeneous. Move into a bowl and mix with the well drained pasta.
Grease a baking dish with a little oil and line it with leek strips, overlapping them slightly on the bottom and side walls of the mold. Use 6 pieces for the bottom and sides, and one piece for each end. Allow the excess leek leaf to hang over the edges of the form. Put the pasta mixture in the form. Level and close with the hanging ends of the leek leaves.
Grease a piece of foil with a little oil and use it to cover the shape, pressing it with your fingers, to fix it to the edges. Fill an oven tray halfway with water and place the form in it. Bake for 1 hour or until the mixture is firm.
Meanwhile, to prepare the sauce, heat the oil in a saucepan, add the garlic and fry for a few seconds. Add the tomatoes, basil, vinegar and sugar and mix. Cover and simmer for 10 minutes. Make the puree sauce in a blender, then pass it through a fine sieve to remove the seeds and peels. Season to taste.
Remove the form from the oven and let it sit for 10 minutes, so that the pudding coagulates well before being removed from the form. Slice the pudding and serve with tomato sauce. Garnish with watercress.
Pasta CAPPELLETTI BIO vegetarian with vegetables 250 gr
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Studies on the efficiency of nasal irrigation
The most recent study, published in August 2020, investigated the effects of nasal and oral lavage in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. [ yl ]
A group of Italian researchers at the University Campus Bio-Medico in Rome wanted to see if nasal irrigation and oral rinsing could reduce the risk of SARS-CoV2 infection.
Given the magnitude of the health and economic crisis generated by COVID-19, any simple and inexpensive means of protection or medical intervention must be considered.
Saline nasal irrigations are often recommended for cleaning the nasal cavities. They help eliminate antigens, inflammatory mediators and harmful microorganisms. They particularly reduce the viral load in the nasal passages.
Studies to date on the usefulness of nasal irrigation have shown that:
- nasal irrigations with sea water, 3 times a day for 2 months, reduced the number of episodes of upper respiratory infections and the risk of complications, and improved rhinological symptoms [III]
- daily use of a nasal spray with a saline solution can prevent nasal cold symptoms in healthy adults [N]
- nasal irrigation and gargling with hypertonic saline reduced the duration of the disease by 1.9 days, the use of drugs and the degree of transmission by 35% [V]
However, saline nasal irrigation has another benefit: it improves the innate antiviral immunity of the cells of the nasal mucosa.
A study published in September 2018 in "Scientific Reports" showed that epithelial cells, fibroblasts and liver cells have increased antiviral activity in the presence of high concentrations of sodium chloride in the case of infections with influenza A virus, human coronaviruses and herpes simplex 1 [ VI ].
Rinsing the oral cavity reduces viral contamination
Even mouthwashes can reduce the viral load in oral fluids.
According to a study published in 2015 in the Journal of Clinical Periodontology, rinsing the mouth with Listerine (antiseptic water) can reduce viral contamination (with the herpes virus) in oral fluids. [ ARE YOU COMING ]
There are no studies on the prevention of coronavirus infections by oral rinsing with alcoholic solutions. However, some research confirms that mouthwashes with antimicrobial agents fight protein-coated viruses.
Multiple center studies are needed, involving a large number of subjects, to demonstrate the real effectiveness of this therapy.
Researchers need to determine what solutions and devices are appropriate for performing nasal irrigations and how long the treatment should take for good results.
Nasal irrigation with saline solutions can be performed at home. No serious side effects have been reported. But hypertonic solutions can irritate the nasal mucosa.
1. Nicola Principi and Susanna Esposito, Nasal Irrigation: An Imprecisely Defined Medical Procedure, Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 May 14 (5): 516: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451967/
2. Manuele Casale, Vittorio Rinaldi, Lorenzo Sabatino, Antonio Moffa, Massimo Ciccozzi, Could nasal irrigation and oral rinse reduce the risk for COVID-19 infection? International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, 15 August. 2020: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2058738420941757
3. Ivo Slapak, Jana Skoupá, Petr Strnad, Pavel Horník, Efficacy of isotonic nasal wash (seawater) in the treatment and prevention of rhinitis in children, Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008 Jan134 (1): 67-74: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18209140/
4. Liselott Tano & Krister Tano, A Daily Nasal Spray with Saline Prevents Symptoms of Rhinitis, Journal Acta Oto-Laryngologica, Volume 124, 2004 & # 8211 Issue 9: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080 / 00016480410017657
5. Ramalingam, S., Graham, C., Dove, J. et al. A pilot, open labelled, randomised controlled trial of hypertonic saline nasal irrigation and gargling for the common cold. Sci Rep 9, 1015 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37703-3
6. Sandeep Ramalingam, Baiyi Cai, Junsheng Wong, Matthew Twomey, Rui Chen, Rebecca M Fu, Toby Boote, Hugh McCaughan, Samantha J Griffiths , Jürgen G Haas, Antiviral innate immune response in non-myeloid cells is augmented by chloride ions via an increase in intracellular hypochlorous acid levels, Scientific Reports. 2018 Sep 118(1):13630: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30206371/
7. Timothy F. Meiller, Arley Silva, Sonia M. Ferreira, Mary Ann Jabra‐Rizk, Jacqueline I. Kelley, and Louis G. DePaola, Efficacy of Listerine® Antiseptic in reducing viral contamination of saliva, J Clin Periodontol. 2005 Apr 32(4): 341–346: do: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166778/
* The advice and any health information available on this site are for informational purposes, do not replace the doctor's recommendation. If you suffer from chronic illnesses or follow drug treatments, we recommend that you consult your doctor before starting a cure or natural treatment to avoid interaction. By postponing or interrupting classic medical treatments you can endanger your health.
Supa minestrone alla cucina povera
Numele meu este Ligia, cea mai parte a anului locuiesc in Italia impreuna cu familia, astfel incat mancarea italiana a luat incet locul celei romanesti in bucataria noastra. Concursul vostru m-a luat pe nepregatite, de dimineata am aflat de el, asa ca am sa ma inscriu exact cu ceea ce am pregatit azi, supa minestrone, si promit sa revin cu alte doua retete. Cucina povera inseamna bucataria saracului, pentru ca este un fel de mancare care pe vremuri se prepara in bucatariile taranilor, din ceea ce gaseau la indemana, asa cum este si ciorba noastra de legume. Vesnicia s-a nascut la sat, nu-i asa? Supa minestrone nu are o reteta fixa, este o supa groasa sau o tocana lichida, sezoniera, preparata din legumele care cresc in curtea omului sau se gasesc pe tarabele taranilor. De obicei este o supa doar din legume, dar sunt si variante cu carne, in special de pui sau de vitel. Iata o varianta de minestrone asa cum se prepara in zona in care locuim noi, Brescia.
- 2 litri de apa
- 250 ml vin rosu sec sau demisec
- 500 g rosii sau o cutie de rosii cuburi
- 1 ceapa tocata marunt
- 3 catei de usturoi feliati sau 3 fire de usturoi tocate
- 4 morcovi feliati sau taiati cuburi
- 3 fire de apio feliate
- 1 dovlecel taiat cuburi
- 500 g varza taiata marunt, aici se foloseste varza kalle
- 400 g fasole alba sau rosie, hidratata si fiarta in prealabil cca 30 minute
- 150 g spanac tanar tocat mare
- 200 g paste marunte, de gen stellini, ditalini rigati, orzo
- 100 g parmesan ras pe razatoarea mare
- 1 lingurita de busuioc uscat, 1 lingurita de oregano uscat
- 1 lingurita de piper macinat
- 2-4 lingurite de sare de mare
- optional suc de lamaie pentru acrit
Toate ingredientele de mai sus mai putin pastele si spanacul se pun in oala de supa, se da apa in clocot. Se reduce flacara la minimum, se acopera partial cu un capac, se fierbe cam 30 de minute, pana cand morcovii si fasolea sunt patrunse. se adauga pastele, se continua fierberea inca 10 minute, se stinge focul si se adauga spanacul. Se acopera cratita si se lasa inca 10 minute, sa se inmoaie spanacul. Se poate acri in castron dupa dorinta, se presara parmesan si se mamanca cu paine calda cu coaja groasa, taraneasca.
Long pasta may be made by extrusion or rolling and cutting.
|Description||Translation||Synonyms||Origin or main area of consumption|
|Barbine||Thin strands, often coiled into nests||Little beards ||Barbina|
|Bavette||Narrower version of tagliatelle||Bibs ||Baverine, bavettine, lasagneddi (in Sicily) ||Liguria |
|Bigoli||Thick, softer, spaghetti-like pasta. Made with whole wheat rather than durum. Sometimes made with duck egg. ||From bigolaro, the pasta press used to make bigoli ||Fusarioi ||Veneto |
|Bucatini||Thick spaghetti-like pasta with a hole running through the center||Hollow straws  Translated from Italian: buco, meaning "hole", and Italian: bucato, meaning "pierced".||Boccolotti, perciatellini, foratini, fidelini bucati, fide bucate, agoni bucati, spilloni bucati  ||Lazio |
|Busiate (or busiati)||Type of long macaroni. Often coiled around a twig of local weed. ||From busa, meaning "reed". ||Subioti, fusarioi, maccheroni bobbesi, busa, ciuffolitti (Abruzzo), gnocchi del ferro ||Sicily (particularly Trapani)  Sardinia |
|Capellini||Very thin spaghetti, often coiled into nests. Capelli d'angelo are slightly thinner.||Thin hair, little hair ||Angel Hair,  Capelli d'angelo, cabellos de angel, capelvenere, fidelini, fedelini, cappellini, sopracappellini, capellini fini, bassetti, tagliolini a nido, barbine a nido, ramicia, vrimiciddi  ||Liguria |
|Fedelini||Very thin spaghetti ||Little faithful ones||Naples, Genoa and Liguria |
|Ferrazzuoli||Similar to a twisted buccato with a cleft running on the side||Possibly from the thin iron square used to create the cleft  [ citation needed ]||Cannucce ||Calabria |
|Fettuccine||Ribbon of pasta approximately 6.5 millimeters wide. Larger and thicker than tagliatelle ||Little ribbons:  from affettare, "to slice". ||Lasagnette, fettucce, ramicce, sagne  ||Rome |
|Fileja||Elongated screw.  ||Dialectal for yarn, filato ||filleda,  filateddhi, filatelli, fusilli avellinesi, maccaruni aru ferru, ricci di donna ||Vibo Valentia (Calabria),  Avellino (Campania) |
|Linguine||Flattened spaghetti||Little tongues ||Bavettine, bavette fini, radichini, linguettine |
|Lagane ||Wide pasta||Lasagnoni, Bardele |
|Lasagna||Square or rectangle sheets of pasta that sometimes have fluted edges (lasagne ricce). The square of pasta is lasagna while the dish is lasagne ||Possibly from Latin lasanum or Greek lasonon, "Cooking pot",   or the Greco-Roman laganum, a flat piece of bread. ||bardele, lasagnoni (Veneto) capellasci (Liguria) sagne (Salento) lagana (Apulia)  the fluted version can also be doppio festone, sciabo, sciablo |
|Lasagnette||Narrower version of Lasagna ||Little lasagna|
|Lasagnotte||Longer version of Lasagna||Bigger lasagna|
|Maccheroni alla molinara||Very thick, long, hand-pulled pasta.||The miller’s wife’s pasta||Abruzzo|
|Maccheroncini di Campofilone||Thin strands of egg-based pasta. Similar to Capelli d'angelo.||Marche |
|Mafalde||Long rectangular ribbons with ruffled sides.||Named in honor of Princess Mafalda of Savoy  ||Reginette, frese, tagliatelle nervate,  signorine, trinette, ricciarelle, sfresatine, nastri, nastrini ||Naples |
|Matriciani||Similar to perciatelli, but folded over rather than hollowed out|
|Pappardelle||Thick flat ribbons  of egg-based dough||From Tuscan papparsi, "to pig out". ||Papparelle,  paparele (Veneto) paspardelle (Marche) ||Tuscany and northern Italy |
|Perciatelli||"Virtually identical to bucatini" ||From perciare, "to hollow"||Maccheroncelli, Maccheronicini, Mezzanelli, Long Macaroni ||Campania |
|Pici||Very thick, irregular and long, hand-rolled pasta. ||From appiciare, "to stick". ||Lunghetti (Montalcino) pinci (Montepulciano) umbrici/ciriole (Umbria)  ||Tuscany |
|Pillus||Very thin ribbons cooked in beef broth||Lisanzedas, a variation large discs in lasagne-like layers||Sardinia|
|Rustiche||Serrated ribbons||literally the feminine plural of rustico, meaning 'rustic' ||Apulia|
|Sagne 'ncannulate||Long tube formed of twisted ribbon||Caned lasagne|
|Scialatelli or scialatielli||Short, flat ribbons||Sorrento |
|Spaghetti||A long, thin, cylindrical pasta of Italian origin, made of semolina or flour and water.  Spaghettini and spaghettoni are slightly thinner or thicker, respectively. ||"Little strings".  Spaghetti is the plural form of the Italian word spaghetto, which is a diminutive of spago, meaning "thin string" or "twine". ||Fide/fidi, fidelini, ristoranti, vermicelloni, filatelli, vermicelloni giganti  ||Sicily|
|Spaghetti alla chitarra||Square spaghetti,  made of egg and flour||Named after the guitar-like device used to cut the pasta,  which has a wooden frame strung with metal wires, sheets of pasta are pressed down onto the device, and then the wires are "strummed" so the slivers of pasta fall through.||Tonnarelli, maccheroni alla chitarra||Abruzzo|
|Spaghettini||A slightly thinner version of spaghetti ||Thin spaghetti ||Thin spaghetti|
|Spaghettoni||A slightly thicker version of spaghetti ||Spaghetti spessi|
|Stringozzi||Similar to shoelaces||Shoestring-like, shoelaces |
|Su Filindeu||Extremely rare pasta, made of thinly pulled and folded dough which is laid in the sun to dry. ||The threads (or wool) of God ||Sardinia |
|Tagliatelle||Ribbons of egg-based pasta.  Generally narrower than fettuccine.||From the Italian tagliare, meaning "to cut". ||Tagliarelli, reginelle, fresine, nastri, fettuccelle, fettucce romane, fiadi, tagliolini tagliatelle smalzade (Trentino) lesagnetes (Veneto) bardele (Lombardia) fettuccine (Lazio) pincinelle (Colonna) tagghiarini (Sicily) taddarini (Sardinia)  ||Emilia-Romagna (part. Bologna) |
|Taglierini||Thinner version of tagliatelle||From the Italian tagliare, meaning "to cut".||Tagliolini tagliatini (Tuscany) tajarin (Piedmont) ||Liguria, Piedmont |
|Trenette||Thin ribbon ridged on one side. Slightly thicker than linguine.|
|Tripoline||Thick ribbon ridged on one side ||Signorine |
|Vermicelli||A traditional pasta round that is thinner than spaghetti.  ||Little worms  ||Very thin spaghetti||Campania |
|Ziti||Long, narrow hose-like tubes  larger than mezzani (also called mezzi ziti) or bucatini that are traditionally broken before being put to cook.  The addition of the word rigati (e.g. ziti rigati) denotes lines or ridges on the pasta's surface. Ziti candelati are longer, zitoni a bit larger.||Bride and bridegroom (ziti is plural) in Sicilian dialect. ||Boccolotti, zitoni, zituane, candele, ziti candelati  ||Sicily,  Southern Italy |
Short cut pasta (''pasta corta'') are mostly made by extrusion.
|Image||Type||Description||Translation||Synonyms||Origin or main area of consumption|
|Anelli||Short tubular, or annular-shaped, pasta sometimes with ridges on the inside or outside. ||Small rings ||Anelloni, anellini, anelletti, anelloni d'Africa (large rings) ||Sicily |
|Boccoli||Short, thick twisted shape.||Ringlets||Sardinia|
|Calamarata||Wide ring-shaped pasta||Squid-like||Calamari||Naples |
|Campanelle or torchio||Flattened bell-shaped pasta with a frilly edge on one end. Torchio are identical, with a smooth edge. ||Bellflower,   gigli are lilies,  torchio is a press (usually for olive or grapes, but also pasta). ||Gigli,  cornetti, corni di bue |
|Cappelli da chef||Extruded pasta that looks like a chef's hat||Chef hats||Chef's hats|
|Casarecce||Short lengths extruded into a S shape. ||From casereccio, "homemade".||Casarecci, Cesariccia ||Sicily, Campania |
|Cascatelli||Designed by Dan Pashman in 2021 – thick, half-tubed pasta with ruffled sides||From cascatelle, "little waterfalls"||United States|
|Castellane||Shell pasta coiled into a conical shape||Translated as "castle dweller", for the shape of the pasta loosely resembles that of a long, flowing robe.|
|Cavatappi||Corkscrew-shaped macaroni.||Corkscrews||Cellentani,  amori, spirali, tortiglioni, or fusilli rigati.|
|Cavatelli||Short, solid lengths. Exist in three sizes, usually measured in fingers (one, two or three) ||From the verb cavare, "hollow".||Cortecce,  gnocchetti, manatelli, orecchie di prete, strascinati, truoccoli capunti, cingule, minuich, rascatelli, zinnezinne (Basilicata) cantaroggini, cavatieddi, cecatelli/cicatelli, cecatidde, mignuicchi, strascenate, tagghjunghele (Apulia and Campania) pincinelle (Marche) cavatielle, 'ncatenate, cazzarille, ciufele (Molise) cavasuneddi, cavatuneddi, gnucchitti, gnocculi (Sicily),  pizzicarieddi (Apulia).  Pictured is dry capunti, a variety of cavatelli from Apulia.||Southern continental Italy (i.e. Campania, Apulia, Molise, Basilicata, Calabria) and Sicily |
|Chifferi||Short and wide macaroni. Can be smooth (lisce) or furrowed (rigati). ||From the Austrian cookies Kipferl. ||Gomiti |
|Cicioneddos||Hand-rolled, shell-shaped pasta that are smaller than malloreddus.||Sardinia|
|Conchiglie||Seashell-shaped, usually furrowed (rigate)||Shells ||Arselle, abissini, coccioline, conchigliette, tofettine,  cinesini, margaritine, cinesi rigati, mezzi cocci, margherite rigate, cappettine |
|Creste di galli||Short, curved, and ruffled||Cock's comb ||Grui |
|Fagioloni||Short narrow tube||Large beans|
|Farfalle||Bow tie- or butterfly-shaped||Butterflies ||fiochetti, fiocconi, farfalloni, galla genovese,  strichetti (Modena), nocchette (Apulia and Abruzzo) ||Northern Italy |
|Fazzoletti||Thin rectangles or squares of pasta||Handkerchief ||Fazzoletti di seta, mandilli di sea (Ligurian dialect) ||Liguria |
|Festoni||Thick ruffled helices||Festoon|
|Fiorentine||Grooved cut tubes||Florentine|
|Fiori||Shaped like a flower||Flowers|
|Fusilli||Long, thick, corkscrew-shaped pasta that may be solid or hollow.||The word fusilli presumably comes from Italian: fuso, meaning "spindle". ||Eliche, girandole, rotini, tortiglioni, spirali  |
|Fusilli bucati||A hollow version of fusilli.  Note: different shapes can be attached to this name. Can be long, short or twined (lunghi, corti or gemellati). ||Holed spindles||Busiata, maccaruna di casa, pirciati, filati cu lu pirtuso, fusilli col buco.  ||Sicily |
|Garganelli||Egg pasta in a square shape rolled into a tube||From garganel, "oesophagus"  ||Maccheroni al petine (Marche), fischioni ||Emilia-Romagna |
|Gemelli||A single S-shaped strand of pasta twisted in a loose spiral. ||The name derives from the Italian for twins. |
|Gnocchi||Lobed shells. Not to be confused with gnocchi dumplings.||Possibly "knots" |
|Gomiti||Elbow maccheroni, furrowed.||From gomito, "elbow". ||Chifferi|
|Lorighittas||Strands of pasta rolled twice around three fingers to form a ring, and then twisted to look like a rope. ||Small rings ||Morgongiori, Sardinia |
|Macaroni||Tubes, either bent or straight ||From Greek for food made from barley ||Macaroni  (outside of Italy), maccheroncini ||Naples |
|Maccheroncelli||Hollow tube-shaped pasta that is slightly smaller than a pencil in thickness ||Small maccheroni|
|Mafaldine||Short ribbons with ruffled sides ||Little mafalde||Mafalda corta, Biricci |
|Maltagliati||Irregular shapes of flat pasta formed from scraps of pasta production. ||Badly cut ||Strengozze,  malmaritati, blecs pizzocherini (Valtellina) straciamus/spruzzamusi (Mantua) gasse, martaliai (Liguria) begnamusi/sguazzabarbuz (Emilia-Romagna) strengozze (Marche) sagne 'mpezze (Latium) pizzelle (Apulia) foglie di salice (Piedmont) |
|Malloreddus||Hand-rolled, shell-shaped pasta with saffron.  A machine-extruded version also exists, which typically omits the use of saffron. ||In Campidanese dialect a malloreddu is a male cow (plur. malloreddus) ||Gnocchetti sardi,  caidos, macarones cravaos, maccaronis de orgiu ||Sardinia |
|Mandala||Designed by Philippe Starck in 1987 for French pasta maker Panzani, intended to compensate for overcooking. ||A reference to mandalas.|
|Marille||Designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro in 1983 – like a rolling ocean wave in cross-section with internal rugosities, but unsuccessful and no longer produced. ||From mare, "sea"|
|Mezzani||Short curved tube  ||Half-size ones||Perciatelloni, Mezze Zite, Regine, Scaloppi, Napoletani, Hoernli (wide-spread in Switzerland, in at least 3 sizes) |
|Mezze maniche||About half the length of rigatoni||Half-sleeves|
|Mezze penne||Short version of penne||Half-pens|
|Mezzi bombardoni||Wide short tubes||Half-bombards|
|Nuvole||Short coiled pasta||Clouds|
|Paccheri||Large tube pasta often topped with sauce or stuffed with ingredients.  May collapse under own weight when cooking. ||from Napolitan paccharia, "Slaps" with a depreciative -ero to indicate something common.   The name has been ascribed to a slapping sound they may make when eaten. ||Maniche di frate, maniche rigate, rigatoni, rigatoncini, bombaroni, tufoli rigati. Moccolotti in Marche and Umbria. ||Naples |
|Passatelli||Made from bread crumbs, eggs, grated Parmesan cheese, lemon, and nutmeg, and cooked in chicken broth. ||Pesaro e Urbino (northern Marche) and other regions of northern Italy such as Emilia Romagna |
|Pasta al ceppo||Sheet pasta that is similar in shape to a cinnamon stick ||Log-type pasta|
|Penne||Medium length tubes with ridges, cut diagonally at both ends. They can be either lisce (smooth) or rigate (grooved). Mostaccioli is also sometimes used for Barilla products, pennette have a shorter length and pennoni are wider and thicker. ||Pens (after a quill pen) or feathers. ||Pennine, mezze pennette lisce, mezze penne, mezzani, pennettine, pennuzze, penne regina,  mostaccioli, penne a candela, penne di natale/natalini, penne di ziti/zitoni. ||Liguria  |
|Penne ricce||Curled penne variant, usually grooved.||Curly penne.|
|Picchiarelli||Slightly longer than cavatelli.||Apulia|
|Pipe rigate||Very similar to Lumaconi but smaller has lines running the length of it||Grooved pipes.|
|Pizzoccheri||A type of short tagliatelle, a flat ribbon pasta, made with buckwheat flour: the lack of gluten makes them hard to manipulate. ||From pinzochero, "bigot". ||Fugascion, pizzocher di Tei ||Valtellina (Lombardy) |
|Quadrefiore||Square with rippled edges||From quadro, "square" and fiore, "flower"|
|Radiatori||Shaped like radiators, they were created between the First and Second World Wars.  They are often used in similar dishes as rotelle or fusilli because their shape works well with thicker sauces. ||Radiator ||Marziani |
|Riccioli||Hollow cut with cylindrical ridges.||Curls.|
|Ricciolini||Short wide pasta with a 90-degree twist||Little curls|
|Ricciutelle||Short spiralled pasta||Little curls|
|Rigatoncini||Smaller version of rigatoni||Small lined ones|
|Rigatoni||Medium-Large tube with square-cut ends, sometimes slightly curved. Always grooved, and straight or bent depending on extrusion method. ||From rigare, "to line, furrow, groove". ||Bombardoni, cannaroni rigati, cannerozzi rigati, rigatoni romani, trivelli, tuffolini rigati ||Lazio |
|Rotelle||Wagon wheel-shaped pasta||Little wheels.||Biciclette, ruotine, ruote, rotelline, ruotelline, rotine, rotini  |
|Sagnette||Short thick ribbons from Abruzzo and Molise. Also called sagne or tagliolini.|
|Sagnarelli||Rectangular ribbons with fluted edges|
|Sedani||Slightly larger than maccheroni with a similar slight bend. Can be smooth (lisce) or furrowed (rigati).||From sedano, "celery"||Sedanini, cornetti, diavoletti, diavolini, folletti or zanne d'elefante if smooth. ||Naples |
|Spiralini (Scharfalini)||Tightly coiled spirali||Little spirals|
|Strapponi||Strips of pasta ripped from a sheet.||From strappare, "to rip off" ||Tuscany |
|Strozzapreti||Rolled across their width. Similar to Sicilian casarecce.||Priest-chokers or priest-stranglers ||Strangolarpreti, gnocchi di prete (Friuli) frigulelli, piccicasanti, strozzafrati (Marche), cecamariti (Lazio) maccheroni alla molinara (Abruzzo) strangulaprievete (Naples) strangulaprieviti (Calabria) affogaparini (Sicily) ||Tuscany, Emilia-Romagna |
|Tortiglioni||Larger tubes than rigatoni, the grooves are also deeper and spiral around the pasta. ||From Latin torquere, "to twist" ||Elicoidali ||Campania, Lazio |
|Treccioni||Coiled pasta.||From treccia, "braid".|
|Trenne||Penne shaped as a triangle ||Triangoli, penne triangolo|
|Trofie||Thin twisted pasta made of durum wheat and water.  Trofie bastarde are made with chestnut flour. ||possibly from Greek trophe, "food"  or local Genovese dialect strofissià or strufuggiâ, "to rub". ||Rechelline, trofiette. ||Liguria |
|Trottole||Pasta in the shape of spinning tops |
|Vesuvio||Corkscrew-shaped pasta.||From Mount Vesuvius||Campania|
Strascinati are mostly hand-made disks of pasta dragged (strascinato) across a wooden board. Orecchiette are the typical example.
|Image||Type||Description||Translation||Synonyms||Origin or main area of consumption|
|Cencioni||Petal shaped, slightly curved with rough convex side ||Little rags||Mischiglio (Basilicata) ||Southern Italy |
|Corzetti||Flat figure-eight stamped from Liguria ||The name derives from a 14th century Genovese coin, the corzetto. ||Curzetti (Genoa) crosets (Piedmont) crosetti (Emilia-Romagna) croxetti, torsellini ||Val Polcevera |
|Fainelle||Flat strascinato that vaguely resembles carob. ||Fainella means carob in Pugliese dialect. ||Foggia (Apulia) |
|Foglie d'ulivo||Shaped like an olive leaf||Olive leaves||Southern Apulia |
|Orecchiette||Irregular disc with a central dome and a slightly thicker crown. Strascinate are identical but flat. ||Little ears ||strascinate recchini (Rome) recchietele (Campania, Molise and Basilicata) orecchie di prete (Abruzzo and Basilicata) cicatelli (Apulia) recchie di prevete (Foggia) cagghiubbi/fenescecchie (Bari) chancierelle/pochiacche (small/big versions Taranto) stacchiodde (Lecce) ||Apulia |
These are small types of pasta, mainly used in soups, many of which belong to the pastina ("small pasta") family.  
|Image||Type||Description||Translation||Synonyms||Origin or main area of consumption|
|Acini di pepe||Bead-like pasta ||Grains of pepper|
|Alphabet pasta||Pasta that has been mechanically cut or pressed into the letters of the alphabet||Alfabeto |
|Anchellini||Small beads |
|Anelli||Small rings of pasta (not to be confused with Calamaretti)||Small rings||Aneletti, anidduzzi, cerchionetti, taraduzzi ||Sicily |
|Anellini||Smaller version of anelli||Little rings ||Anelline |
|Armonie||Small "squiggles" |
|Conchigliette||Small shell-shaped pasta||Little shells||Cocciolette |
|Coralli||Ridged tubes |
|Corallini||Small short tubes of pasta||Little corals|
|Cuscussu||Minuscule dots  reminding of couscous||Scucuzzu.  Kusksu in Malta||Liguria, but found throughout Italy and in Malta.  |
|Ditali||Short tubes whose diameter is roughly the same as their length. Can be lisci or rigati ||Thimbles ||Ditalini, tubetti, tubettini, gnocchetti di ziti, ditaletti, coralli denti di vecchia, denti di cavallo, ganghi di vecchia, magghietti (Apulia and Sicily) ||Campania, Apulia |
|Farfalline||Small bow tie-shaped pasta ||Little butterflies ("bow tie" in Italian is cravatta a farfalla, "butterfly tie")|
|Fideos ||Pasta prepared with eggs, flour and water. |
|Filini||Smaller version of fideos, about 12–15 mm long before cooking||Little threads.|
|Fregula||Bead-like pasta from Sardinia. Slightly toasted due to drying process. ||Little fragments ||Fregola, freula, fregua|
|Funghini||Small mushroom-shaped pasta||Little mushrooms|
|Gianduietta||Farm animals |
|Gramigne||Short curled lengths of pasta. Spaccatelle are larger. ||From gramigna, "weed"  or spaccatura, "slot" ||Crestine, margherite lisce, fagioletti, zitellini, tubettini lunghi,  gramignoni, spaccatelle ||Sicily,  Emilia-Romagna, Marche, Friuli-Venezia Giulia |
|Grattini||Small granular, irregular shaped pasta (smaller version then Grattoni) ||Little grains|
|Grattoni||Large granular, irregular shaped pasta ||Grains|
|Midolline||Flat teardrop shaped pasta  (similar to Orzo but wider)|
|Occhi di passero||Thick rings |
|Occhi di pernice||Very small rings of pasta||Partridge's eyes|
|Orzo||Rice shaped pasta.  Risoni are slightly bigger. ||Barley,  rice ||Puntine, punte d'ago, armelline, semi d'orzo, semi d'avena, semi di riso, occhi di giudeo, armellette, puntalette, semi di cicoria, cicorietta, risetto, chicchi di riso, semini, avena, avena grande, cicorie, semi di melone, semi di mela, midolline, semoni, risone, risoni  riso |
|Pastina||Although pastina is the name for an entire family of miniature pasta shapes, it is also used to describe the most basic one in this family – small spheres, smaller than acini di pepe||Little pasta|
|Piombi||Spheres slightly larger than acini di pepe||Pearl pasta|
|Ptitim||Rice grains, spheres or other forms||Flakes||Israeli couscous, Jerusalem couscous, giant couscous, pearl couscous ||Israel|
|Puntine||Smaller version of Risi |
|Quadrettini||Small flat squares of pasta||Little squares ||Quadrucci, quadratini, quadretti, lucciole,  quadrellini, quadrotti quaternei (Emilia-Romagna) squadrucchetti (Umbria) ciciarchiola/cicerchiole (depending on size Lazio). |
|Sorprese||Small bell shaped pasta with a ruffled edge and a crease on one side. Can be ridged or smooth (lisce)||Surprise|
|Stelle||Small star-shaped pasta.||Stars, small or big (resp. stelline or stellette) ||anellini, avermarie, astri, fiori di sambuco, lentine, puntine, semini, stellettine, stellette  |
|Stortini||Smaller version of elbow macaroni||Little crooked ones|
|Tripolini||In larger varieties these are sometimes called farfalle tonde.  Small bow tie-shaped pasta  with rounded edges.||canestrini are small willow baskets.||Signorine,  canestri, canestrini, farfallini, galani, nastrini, nodini, stricchetti |
The name raviolo (plur. ravioli) can be used as a generic description for almost any type of pasta with filling.