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Australia Reinvents the Food Pyramid with a Heavy Focus on Vegetables and No Sugar in Sight

Australia Reinvents the Food Pyramid with a Heavy Focus on Vegetables and No Sugar in Sight

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The United States ditched the food pyramid in 2011, but Australia believes it has finally gotten the pyramid right

Gone are the days of a strong base of grains and an allowance of sugars and oils up top.

You can probably still conjure up the image of the old food pyramid in your mind’s eye. But we now know a hearty 6 to 11 servings of bread and pasta is ridiculous, and therefore (sadly) the food pyramid model was stricken from health textbooks in America in 2011 and replaced with the much more practical (and greens-heavy) “MyPlate.” But the food pyramid may be back with a vengeance, at least in the Land of Oz.

Nutrition Australia has released a new and improved food pyramid, with vegetables on the bottom and healthy fats up top. In the old days, we were allowed “fats, oils, and sweets” sparingly, but a healthy Australian diet has almost no room for such nonsense. Unlike MyPlate, as the Washington Post points out, this pyramid actually illustrates what people might see as they walk down a grocery aisle. Suggestions of what to line your pantry and fridge shelves with include avocados, broccoli, mushrooms, quinoa, beans, eggs, and the vegan-friendly protein option, tofu. The healthy fats at the top are illustrated by a bottle of olive oil.

In another version of the pyramid, the bottom of the pyramid is not taken up by fruits and vegetables, but rather photos of feet moving in a representation of exercise. Australia has one of the highest obesity rates in the world, at over 25 percent.

Healthy Eating Plate

Drink water, tea, or coffee (with little or no sugar). Limit milk/dairy (1-2 servings/day) and juice (1 small glass/day). Avoid sugary drinks.

The more veggies &mdash and the greater the variety &mdash the better. Potatoes and French fries don’t count.

Eat plenty of fruits of all colors

Choose fish, poultry, beans, and nuts limit red meat and cheese avoid bacon, cold cuts, and other processed meats.

Eat a variety of whole grains (like whole-wheat bread, whole-grain pasta, and brown rice). Limit refined grains (like white rice and white bread).

Incorporate physical activity into your daily routine.

Looking for a printable copy? Download one here, and hang it on your refrigerator to serve as a daily reminder when planning and preparing your meals! Translations of the Healthy Eating Plate are also available in over 25 languages.

Building a Healthy and Balanced Diet

Make most of your meal vegetables and fruits – ½ of your plate.
Aim for color and variety, and remember that potatoes don’t count as vegetables on the Healthy Eating Plate because of their negative impact on blood sugar.

Go for whole grains – ¼ of your plate.
Whole and intact grains—whole wheat, barley, wheat berries, quinoa, oats, brown rice, and foods made with them, such as whole wheat pasta—have a milder effect on blood sugar and insulin than white bread, white rice, and other refined grains.

Protein power – ¼ of your plate.
Fish, poultry, beans, and nuts are all healthy, versatile protein sources—they can be mixed into salads, and pair well with vegetables on a plate. Limit red meat, and avoid processed meats such as bacon and sausage.

Healthy plant oils – in moderation.
Choose healthy vegetable oils like olive, canola, soy, corn, sunflower, peanut, and others, and avoid partially hydrogenated oils, which contain unhealthy trans fats. Remember that low-fat does not mean “healthy.”

Drink water, coffee, or tea.
Skip sugary drinks, limit milk and dairy products to one to two servings per day, and limit juice to a small glass per day.

Stay active.
The red figure running across the Healthy Eating Plate’s placemat is a reminder that staying active is also important in weight control.

The main message of the Healthy Eating Plate is to focus on diet quality:

  • The type of carbohydrate in the diet is more important than the amount of carbohydrate in the diet, because some sources of carbohydrate—like vegetables (other than potatoes), fruits, whole grains, and beans—are healthier than others.
  • The Healthy Eating Plate also advises consumers to avoid sugary beverages, a major source of calories—usually with little nutritional value—in the American diet.
  • The Healthy Eating Plate encourages consumers to use healthy oils, and it does not set a maximum on the percentage of calories people should get each day from healthy sources of fat. In this way, the Healthy Eating Plate recommends the opposite of the low-fat message promoted for decades by the USDA.

Your Plate and the Planet

Your Questions Answered

The Healthy Eating Plate does not define a certain number of calories or servings per day from each food group. The relative section sizes suggest approximate relative proportions of each of the food groups to include on a healthy plate. They are not based on specific calorie amounts, and they are not meant to prescribe a certain number of calories or servings per day, since individuals’ calorie and nutrient needs vary based on age, gender, body size, and level of activity.

As the name suggests, the Healthy Eating Plate is visualized as a single plate, however it can be used as a guide for creating healthy, balanced meals—no matter which type of dishware is used!

  • For example, while you wouldn’t consume soup on a plate—you can consider the relative sizes of each section when choosing what to add to the pot before serving in a bowl: make about half of your ingredients a variety of colorful vegetables (carrots, celery, spinach, tomatoes, sautéed in olive oil), and the other half a mix of whole grains (such as farro) and a healthy protein (such as beans).
  • Or maybe you’re eating your meal in courses, or as multiple dishes in smaller sizes: a plate of grilled fish over brown rice a green side salad filled with veggies and some fruit for a sweet end to the meal.
  • Portioning a meal into separate components is also common when packing a lunchbox—especially for kids.

There are many cultures around the world in which people may not eat their meals from a plate. Although our translations of this guide maintain the single-plate graphic, we encourage its use for creating healthy, balanced meals in context of cultural and individual customs and preferences.

For some people, moderate alcohol consumption can offer health benefits, whereas for others alcohol may pose risks. Learn more about the risks and benefits of alcohol.

The Healthy Eating Plate, created by nutrition experts at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and editors at Harvard Health Publications, was designed to address deficiencies in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)’s MyPlate. The Healthy Eating Plate provides detailed guidance, in a simple format, to help people make the best eating choices.

The Healthy Eating Plate is based exclusively on the best available science and was not subjected to political or commercial pressures from food industry lobbyists. Learn more about how the Healthy Eating Plate compares to the USDA’s MyPlate.

Generations of Americans are accustomed to the food pyramid design, and it’s not going away. In fact, the Healthy Eating Pyramid and the Healthy Eating Plate complement each other. See how you can use the Healthy Eating Pyramid as a guide for your grocery shopping list.

According to research done at Harvard Chan School of Public Health and elsewhere [1-3], following the guidelines presented through the Healthy Eating Pyramid and Healthy Eating Plate can lead to a lower risk of heart disease and premature death:

  • In the 1990s, the USDA’s Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion created the Healthy Eating Index “to measure how well American diets conform to recommended healthy eating patterns.” [4] A score of 100 meant following the federal recommendations to the letter while a score of 0 meant totally ignoring them.
  • To see how well the principles embodied in the Healthy Eating Pyramid stacked up against the government’s advice, researchers at the Harvard Chan School of Public Health created an Alternate Healthy Eating Index with a scoring system similar to the USDA’s index. They then compared the two indexes, using information about daily diets collected from more than 100,000 female nurses and male health professionals taking part in two long-term studies.
    • The eleven components assessed by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index were dairy products vegetables fruit nuts & seeds bread/grains meat, poultry & fish cholesterol fat sodium alcohol and multivitamins.
    • Men who scored highest on the USDA’s original Healthy Eating Index (meaning their diets most closely followed federal recommendations) reduced their overall risk of developing heart disease, cancer, or other chronic disease by 11% over 8 to 12 years of follow-up compared to those who scored lowest. Women who most closely followed the government’s recommendations were only 3% less likely to have developed a chronic disease. [5]
    • In comparison, scores on the Alternate Healthy Eating Index did appear to correlate more closely with better health in both sexes. Men with high scores (those whose diets most closely followed the Healthy Eating Pyramid guidelines) were 20% less likely to have developed a major chronic disease than those with low scores. Women with high scores lowered their overall risk by 11%. Men whose diets most closely followed the Healthy Eating Pyramid lowered their risk of cardiovascular disease by almost 40% women with high scores lowered their risk by almost 30%.
    • In a 2014 study looking at trends in diet quality among adults in the U.S., researchers using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index found that there was steady improvement from 1999 to 2010, but that overall dietary quality remains poor. [6]

    Two studies offer further evidence of the disease prevention benefits that accrue from following a diet similar to one based on the Healthy Eating Pyramid:

    • A study that tracked 7,319 British civil servants for 18 years found that men and women with the highest scores on the Alternate Healthy Eating Index had a 25% lower risk of dying from any cause, and a 42% lower risk of dying from heart disease, than people with the lowest scores. [3]
    • Another observational study in 93,676 post-menopausal women found that following a Healthy Eating Pyramid-style diet (as measured by adherence to the Alternative Healthy Eating Index) was superior to following a low-fat diet at lowering cardiovascular disease and heart failure risk. [1]

    Permissions for Use

    The Healthy Eating Plate image is owned by Harvard University. The downloadable version may be used, without permission, for educational and other non-commercial uses with proper attribution, including the following copyright notification and credit line:

    Copyright © 2011, Harvard University. For more information about The Healthy Eating Plate, please see The Nutrition Source, Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health,, and Harvard Health Publications,

    1. Akbaraly TN, Ferrie JE, Berr C, Brunner EJ, Head J, Marmot MG, Singh-Manoux A, Ritchie K, Shipley MJ, Kivimaki M. Alternative Healthy Eating Index and mortality over 18 y of follow-up: results from the Whitehall II cohort. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2011 May 2594(1):247-53.
    2. Belin RJ, Greenland P, Allison M, Martin L, Shikany JM, Larson J, Tinker L, Howard BV, Lloyd-Jones D, Van Horn L. Diet quality and the risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2011 May 2594(1):49-57.
    3. McCullough ML, Feskanich D, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, Rimm EB, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Diet quality and major chronic disease risk in men and women: moving toward improved dietary guidance. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2002 Dec 176(6):1261-71.
    4. U.S. Department of Agriculture and Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, The Healthy Eating Index (PDF), 1995.
    5. Continuous Update Project Report Summary. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer, 2011.
    6. Wang DD, Leung CW, Li Y, Ding EL, Chiuve SE, Hu FB, Willett WC. Trends in dietary quality among adults in the United States, 1999 through 2010. JAMA internal medicine. 2014 Oct 1174(10):1587-95.

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    The contents of this website are for educational purposes and are not intended to offer personal medical advice. You should seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. The Nutrition Source does not recommend or endorse any products.

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    A Diet Plan That Works For Your Fat Loss And Muscle-Building Goals

    I will introduce you to the nutritional strategy that will revolutionize your bodybuilding life and make muscle gains without the fat!

    As strange as it may sound, there is a way of mimicking the effects of anabolic steroids by implementing a few secrets of anabolic nutrition. I call this the "MuscleHack Anabolic Nutritional Strategy" (MANS).

    I'm not saying that you'll see the same gains as a roidhead, you won't. No natural diet will replicate the effects of anabolic steroids. However, your results will far surpass anything you are currently experiencing, and that's a promise! In the next 15-20 minutes I will introduce you to the nutritional strategy that will revolutionize your bodybuilding life.

    You can make these gains in muscle without the correlating gains in fat! Yep, you really can build new slabs of muscle with very little or no fat. Those with great genetics can actually find the holy-grail of bodybuilding as they build muscle and lose fat at the same time.

    Friends, I have no interest in hyperbole or bullsh!t this nutritional strategy works. It took me years to find it, implement it correctly and reap the rewards. I had to find out for myself how to build lean muscle mass like never before while keeping fat accumulation at bay. It was well worth the effort though.

    So if it's the best bodybuilding diet in existence, why isn't it more widely known? The big supplement companies and rag-magazines would go out of business quickly if they couldn't peddle their snake-oil to you. If the general public were more nutrition-savvy, they'd [email protected] themselves! I doubt very much they'd go out of their way to make the public aware of it.

    This article lays these secrets bare for you to learn. Implement this process wisely and I promise you will make muscle gains like never before.

    Please note that this method takes planning and commitment but it is well worth it! Also please make sure your workouts are up to par by implementing a well thought out training plan.

    Why This Bodybuilding Diet Is The Best

    So how can this nutritional strategy produce massive muscle gains? There is a way to increase anabolic (muscle-building) hormones in the body in the same way that steroids do. The only difference is, it's safe and natural.

    This diet will naturally maximize your body's production of the following anabolic hormones:

    Sounds good doesn't it? You will also have controlled insulin spikes which allows the body to have high levels of growth hormone and insulin at the same time! This does not usually happen and you'll see extremely impressive muscle gains as a result.

    What Causes Muscle Growth?

    Ok, apart from the actual exercise itself, what is the driver of muscle hypertrophy? We've been told over and over again that it's excess calories you must eat more calories than you expend to encourage muscle growth. I'm going to hypothesize something a little controversial. Calories are also an effect, not just a cause.

    Think of a growing child. Are we to assume that vertical growth is caused by excess calories? I think the release of growth hormone is what makes a child grow. Increased growth hormone then causes the child to eat more. I think we have causality round the wrong way here.

    The traditional advice from bodybuilding gurus is to eat everything in sight to increase muscle size. They usually recommend high-carb diets laden with oats, protein shakes with fruit, wholemeal bread, potato, rice (I don't care if it's white or brown) etc. Worse still, they often recommend a low-fat diet!

    Hey, I thought you were trying to grow some serious muscle? If so, you're gonna want to keep the fat intake up. If I'm right, then what we want to devise is a nutritional strategy that ignites the release of anabolic hormones. In turn then, these hormones will let us know when and how much to eat.

    How? By getting hungry—just like a growing child does. See how causality has been reversed? It's no longer.

    Excess Calories = Muscle Growth

    Anabolic Hormones = Muscle Growth (which will drive your appetite & provide sufficient calories).

    Don't get me wrong, sufficient calories are required to build muscle, but it's important to understand the chain of causality. Calorie consumption isn't something you need to labor over which will cripple your life. Let your body dictate your food intake. The best calorie-counter is your stomach: when you're hungry—eat when you're not—don't eat.

    Breakdown Of This Bodybuilding Diet

    This plan requires that you eat a high protein, high fat, low carbohydrate diet for 5 and a half days. Then for 36 hours you carb-up. The high protein, high fat part of the diet is what sparks the increase in blood serum levels.

    Fat Adaptation

    As you will be keeping your carbohydrate level low for most of the week, your body will become a fat-burning machine. At the beginning of the diet your body will undergo a 'metabolic shift' and start to burn fat as its primary source of energy.

    This can take as little as 2 days and up to 14 days for some people. However, the vast majority of you will have become fat-adapted by the end of your first 5 and a half days. The advantages of this are:

    • Increased lipolysis (breakdown of fat)
    • Decreased lipogenesis (production of fat)
    • Decreased catabolism (muscle protein is spared from breakdown)

    Insulin Isn't Your Enemy

    Regular low-carb dieters want to avoid spikes in insulin levels but for the bodybuilder, a controlled spike will do you a world of good. You'll use a 32-36 hour window (I use the weekends for this) to deliberately cause an insulin spike.

    Insulin can make you fat, no doubt about it. Insulin has a dramatic effect on decreasing lipolysis i.e. as insulin regulates fat metabolism, large amounts means that your body will not give up its fat stores for energy it literally shuts the gates to your stored body fat ensuring that it can't be released and used for energy.

    Having said that, insulin is not the enemy of the bodybuilder. Increasing insulin through a carb-loading period is beneficial because:

    • It helps shuttle amino acids into the muscle cells.
    • Increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle.
    • Glycogen supercompensation (Replenish Muscle Glycogen To Fuel Workouts).

    Growth Hormone And Insulin

    As stated previously you will also reap the anabolic effects of increasing insulin, growth hormone and testosterone at the same time. Usually when insulin levels increase, the others decrease and vise versa.

    It seems that the body (once fat adapted) sees the intake of high carbs at the weekend as a stressful situation and releases growth hormone as a survival mechanism.

    Increased growth hormone is your body's way of mobilizing energy stores to deal with this stressful situation and so at this time you can get elevated insulin and growth hormone levels simultaneously—welcome to muscle-building heaven!

    Traditional High-Carb Muscle-Building Diets

    On a high carb diet, (usually recommended for the bulking phase of a bodybuilding lifestyle) insulin levels are chronically elevated. You therefore don't get the edge of maximum release of testosterone, growth hormone and IGF-1. Also on the high carb approach, you prevent your body from using body fat for fuel and actually encourage the laying down of new body fat. That's.

    Your Unique Carbohydrate Threshold Level

    The best thing about this bodybuilding diet is that it's tailor-fitted to your unique metabolic type it's not a one-size-fits-all diet. You will find your unique carb threshold level and this will allow you to:

    Your carb threshold level can be defined as "The lowest possible daily carbohydrate intake that allows you to function at top level."

    Since we're concerned with building muscle, we need to find the lowest amount of carbs you need in a day to not only feel good but hammer out muscle-building workouts that continually improve, week-on-week.

    I recommend you start out at 30 grams per day and adjust from there. Don't make any changes to this for at least a week because you need to make the metabolic switch to burning fat for fuel first. Once this is completed you will be able to tell from your workout performances whether or not you need some more carbs (if so increase in 5 gram per day increments).

    I personally average at around 27 grams of carbohydrates per day for 5 and a half days. Some days I take in 35 grams but on others just 20 grams. Going higher or lower is fine, just check your weekly averages. This low amount of carbohydrate is enough to power me through some amazing workouts I've got bags of energy and feel great.

    Post-Workout Nutrition

    Some of you may be wondering about post-workout carbs. There is simply no need for the astronomical amount of post-workout carbs a lot of people ingest. So, do I advise post-workout carbs? Yes, a little.

    Post-workout carbs aren't magical either, you must count them towards your daily totals. So, I usually take around 10 grams of glucose post-workout and 15 grams for a particularly gruelling 2-body part workout. If, for example, I work just my abs alone, then no post-workout carbs are required some protein (40 grams or so), creatine (5 grams) and L-Glutamine (3-5 grams) does the trick.

    I remember being advised years ago that I needed around 60-100 grams of post-workout carbs to encourage muscle hypertrophy. It's no surprise now, with a little education, that I got fat. Also, remember creating daily insulin spikes will have an adverse effect on growth hormone levels so follow this to the letter.

    Your Carb-Up Period

    This is perfect as you can enjoy your life too after being so strict during the week. Have some pizza, Chinese, whatever you feel like. Take your woman out for a meal, have some beers with the guys and rest assured that your actually benefiting from this. I limit the junk meals to 2 and the rest of the time I eat a mostly high-carb, moderate fat, moderately-low protein diet.

    It isn't an excuse to go completely nuts but let your hair down a little. Again, there's no reason to eat past satiation, let your gut decide how much to eat.

    There is no real limit on the amount of carbs you can have. The key is just to watch the time it takes for you to begin to smooth-out (lose definition) it may take a little bit of experimentation at first and it will be different for everyone 32 hours works great for me.

    You'll notice that every week you go through a mini-cycle of being bigger and smaller this is just due to fluctuating water levels. When you begin to low-carb you'll flush out some water, it's perfectly natural.

    Continually monitor your weight in conjunction with your body fat levels. If you notice that by Saturday afternoon, you're smoothing out a little bit too much, you know that you'll have to limit your carb-up period to 24 hours keep monitoring and adjusting as necessary.

    In a word—No. It's a little different for when you're cutting (and I'll get into that in later articles) but for gaining muscle and simply maintaining your current body fat levels it's [email protected] impossible to gain fat with this anabolic nutritional strategy.

    Remember that insulin is key here you'll be keeping insulin levels very low for the majority of the time.

    From Healing Daily

    "These triglycerides in the blood are the direct result of carbohydrates from the diet being converted by insulin. These triglycerides do not come directly from dietary fats. They are made in the liver from any excess sugars which have not been used for energy."

    From Dr. Michael Eades' Blog

    "These type 1 diabetics have no insulin so they can't really stuff fat into their fat cells. And they are breaking protein down, converting it to glucose and urinating it away. They are voraciously hungry and eat, eat, eat but they can't store any fat. Their fragile situation demonstrates that in the absence of insulin it's virtually impossible to gain weight.

    After following a low-carb diet for a while, our overweight patients lower their insulin levels, so, as with type I diabetics, it is difficult for them to store fat as well. They crank up all the futile cycling, elevate levels of uncoupling protein synthesis and increase proton leakage to dissipate the excess energy they're consuming, but they don't store it as fat. If you start throwing back the carbs, however, you will lose this advantage."

    I hope you can now see the huge benefit there is to eating this way. The bodybuilding world is still largely clueless of this. I urge you to take advantage of this knowledge!

    How many carbs should I eat?

    As for the ideal number of carbs per meal, there's no magic number. How much carbohydrate each person needs is in large part determined by your body size and activity level. Appetite and hunger also play a role.

    In order to figure out how many carbs you should be eating, schedule an appointment with your RD/RDN or CDCES. They’ll work out an eating plan specifically for you. This service, when provided by a dietitian, is known as medical nutrition therapy.

    Diabetes self-management education (DSME) sessions also may include creating an eating plan. During the sessions, you'll determine your carb needs and how to divide your carbs among your meals and snacks. Everybody's insulin response is going to be different, and we don't want to make the diet more restrictive than it needs to be to manage blood sugars.

    To get started, you’ll want to figure out how many carbs you are eating at your meals and snacks now. Tracking your food intake and your blood sugar before and about 2-3 hours after your meals for a few days can provide useful information for you and your diabetes care team to see how different meals impact your blood glucose so you can determine the right amount of carbs for you.

    What Is The Autoimmune Protocol Diet?

    So what CAN you eat? Well, you’re in luck. We’ve put together an awesome graph that shows you the ins & outs of this paleo variation so you can stay on track and stay healthy!

    Food GroupAVOIDEAT
    MEATSFactory farmed meats, farm raised seafoodBeef, Bison, Chicken, Turkey, Boar, Wild Caught Fish, Game Meats
    GRAINSOats, Rice, Millet, Quinoa (a pseudo grain), Wheat, all GlutenNone
    LEGUMESAll Beans (not including string beans or snap peas), Soy/Edamame and PeanutsSnap Peas, String Beans, Haricot Vert
    VEGETABLESAvoid Nightshades, Eggplant, Tomatoes, Onion, White Potatoes, Gogi Berries, and all pepper based spices like cayenne, nutmeg, paprikaEverything else! Asparagus, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Leafy Greens, Broccoli Cauliflower, Cucumber, Beets, Squash, Carrots, Sweet Potatoes and many more
    FRUITNoneAll fruits are permitted. *To keep daily fructose intake reasonable try to stick to a max of 2-3 pieces of fruit per day
    DAIRYCheese, Yogurt, Ghee, Butter, Ice Cream, Half and HalfCoconut milk (without additives)
    EGGSAll kindsNone
    NUTS AND SEEDSAlmonds, Cacao, Coffee Cashews, Macadamias, Sunflower Seeds, Pumpkin Seeds, Chia Seeds, Sesame SeedsNone
    FERMENTED FOODSFermented Soy productsKombucha, Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Kefir made with water/coconut water
    SUGAR AND SUGAR REPLACEMENTAll sugars! Sugar, HCFs, coconut sugar, date sugar, corn sugar, stevia, agave, molasses and limit honey and maple syrupNone
    FATSAll Butter & ghee, all Margarines, Canola Oil & all other seed oilsAvocado, Avocado Oil, Coconut Oil, Lard, Fat, Olive Oil
    FOOD ADDITIVESCarrageenan, Guar Gum, Aspartame, Benzoic acid, MSG, Sulfates/Sulfites, Nitrates/NitritesNone
    NSAIDSIbuprofen, Naprosyn, Naproxen sodium, ketorolac and othersNone
    ALCOHOLBeer, Liquor, even sugar alcohols and extracts (like vanilla extract)None (Sparkling water and Kombucha are great party-substitutes!)

    Here’s table in graphic form (you can save it and download it for quick reference).

    Australia Reinvents the Food Pyramid with a Heavy Focus on Vegetables and No Sugar in Sight - Recipes

    Whether they’ve found their way into your home after a heavy rain or because you missed cleaning up a few crumbs on the counter, ants are a pest that seem to immediately take over your home when they find a way inside. When you discover ants in your home, you want them gone right away. While you’ll find several ways to kill ants, if you’re looking for an effective solution, consider using borax.

    The Difference Between Boric Acid and Borax

    Image via Flickr by jkirkhart35

    Although they’re both used as a pesticide, boric acid and borax do have some differences. Borax is a mineral mined from the ground. You can find it in cosmetics, toothpastes, soaps, weed killers, and it’s most often used as an alternative to harsh laundry detergents. After further processing, borax turns into boric acid. Whether you have borax or boric acid, it’s important to remember that you need to keep these products away from children and pets. Additionally, be careful when you’re using it because it might cause skin irritation.

    Why Is Borax Lethal to Ants?

    Although borax has a low toxicity rate for humans and other animals, it’s fatal for ants when they come in contact with it. When ants eat the borax bait, it interferes with their digestive system and eventually kills them. However, it’s not an immediate death. That’s because, for effective ant control, you need to eliminate the queen and the rest of the colony. Worker ants will consume the borax bait and bring it back to the colony for the other ants to eat.

    Using Borax to Kill Ants

    It’s important to keep in mind that if you’re thinking about using borax powder, ants aren’t attracted to it alone. In order to entice them to bring it back to the colony, you have to mix the borax with some of their favorite foods. The first step is figuring out where the ants are entering your home. The easiest way to find their entrance is to simply follow the trail of ants.

    When ants find food, they leave behind a pheromone trail so that other ants in their colony can immediately locate the same food and bring it back to the nest. These trails are an ideal place to put your borax bait, but it’s even better if you can place the bait right in their entryway. That way, they’re not even coming inside your home.

    Making Borax Ant Bait

    Since all ants’ digestive systems work the same way no matter what species you’re dealing with, borax is an effective killer whether you have sugar ants, fire ants, carpenter ants, or almost any other type of ant in your home. The important thing to keep in mind is that you need a variety of liquid and solid baits.

    Although it seems like ants will eat anything in sight, adult ants can’t digest solid foods and only eat liquids. On the other hand, larvae can process solid foods and turn it into a liquid that the queen will then eat. A variety of baits will make sure you eliminate the entire colony.

    Liquid Borax Ant Bait Recipes

    You’ll find several types of liquid borax ant bait recipes, so it helps to try out different options to see which one works better for the species of ant you’re dealing with. No matter which recipe you use, you’ll need some type of container to hold the bait. You can use a small plastic container, plastic lid, paper plate, or cotton ball. The only important part is to make sure the ants can easily get in and out of your bait holder.

    One recipe you can try calls for a half cup of sugar, 1.5 tablespoons of borax, and 1.5 cups of warm water. Simply mix all the ingredients together until they’re blended, and place the bait in the trap for the ants to consume.

    Another recipe to try, calls for three parts sugar for every one part borax. For example, if you use 1 cup of sugar you’ll need to mix it with one-third cup of borax. Blend these two ingredients together until you have no more lumps. Next, add enough water to turn the mixture into a thick paste. For the above example, about one-quarter cup of water will suffice. Finally, add about one-quarter cup of syrup to the mixture for a thick, sticky substance the ants can’t resist.

    Solid Borax Ant Bait Recipe

    For the solid borax ant recipe, you want to use the same 1-to-3 ratio mentioned in the liquid ant bait recipe. However, in this case, you’ll want to mix the borax with powdered sugar. As an example, if you use three-quarters of a cup of powdered sugar, you’ll want to combine it with one-quarter of a cup of borax. Then simply stir the ingredients together to make sure they’re completely mixed.

    You can use the solid and liquids baits inside and outside, but if you use them in your garden, you need to make sure you put the mixture in a lid or other type of plastic container. Borax is also an herbicide, and it can kill your plants if you pour the mixture directly over them.

    Using Borax to Kill Fire Ants

    Fire ants are an invasive species that can cause plenty of issues if they decide to create a nest in your yard. Luckily, borax also effectively kills these colonies. Just keep in mind that you want to try to kill just the fire ants and not any indigenous ants. This is because if you kill every ant in your yard, you’re only leaving room for more fire ants to move in and take over the area.

    Sparing the indigenous ants will help keep the ecosystem balanced. The easiest way to focus your borax baits for just fire ant consumption is to get a container of bait as close to the fire ant mound as safely possible. Then let the worker ants take care of the rest.

    If you find ants in your home or yard, you now know how you can use borax to make liquid and solid baits to attract ants and ultimately kill the colony.

    Is the Paleo Diet Supported by Scientific Research? – Part 2

    Last week, I countered claims that “paleo gots no science” with summaries of five recent (and not so recent) papers supporting the paleo/Primal approach to diet. The reception to that post was strong enough that I got requests to cover a few more this week. So today, I’m going to explain the findings of five more relevant studies. Not all of these studies come from the original list, but each gives an accurate and important portrayal of the effects of eating in accordance with one’s biology. More importantly, these are all interesting approaches to the diet, with some examining higher-carb paleo, some looking at higher-fat and downright ketogenic paleo diets, and still others trying to disentangle the beneficial effects of the weight loss that normally occurs on paleo diets from the effect of going paleo.

    This was a cool one because researchers were interested in the effect of paleo style eating on the metabolic syndrome absent weight loss. Everyone knows that weight loss on any diet improves symptoms of metabolic syndrome (hypertension, poor lipids, blood sugar disregulation, etc), so this study sought to uncover any effects unique to paleo eating. How’d it go?

    First off, it was hard to keep paleo dieters from losing weight. Seven of the 17 subjects in the paleo group lost enough weight that researchers had to provide extra snacks to keep their weight up. Once they got that under control, good things happened:

    • Waist circumference decreased by 3.1 cm — an indicator of reduced belly fat, which is remarkable especially given the lack of significant weight loss (just 6 pounds on average).
    • Systolic and diastolic blood pressures dropped by 8.5 and 8, respectively.
    • Both fasting insulin and glucose decreased, indicating better blood sugar control and more fat burning.
    • Insulin resistance dropped.
    • Blood lipids improved, with total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides decreasing.

    Takeaway: By all indications, metabolic syndrome patients can benefit from going paleo. If they were allowed to also focus on losing weight, I have no doubt that the numbers would improve even more.

    At first glance, the abstract of the study suggests a diet at complete and utter odds with paleo. It’s low in fat (under 10% of calories) and protein, and high in “complex carbohydrates.” Complex carbohydrates, in modern parlance, are hearthealthywholegrains: breads, pastas, porridges. But in this study that attempted to recreate the pre-contact Hawaiian diet, complex carbohydrates meant roots and tubers like sweet potato, yam, breadfruit, and taro. In fact, grains were restricted because those were unavailable in the islands before Europeans arrived. The traditional Hawaiian diet used in the study, called the Wainae Diet, consisted of unlimited amounts of sweet potatoes, yams, breadfruits, taro roots, poi (a mashed and fermented taro), fruit, seaweed, and greens from sweet potato, yam, and taro plants. About 200 grams, or roughly half a pound, of chicken and/or fish were also included each day. All cooked foods were steamed, similar to traditional forms of Hawaiian cooking.

    The macros are a bit different from what you’d expect from a paleo diet, but the food quality is in lockstep. No grains, legumes, dairy, seed oils, or processed junk food. No acellular carbohydrates (pulverized grains: bread, pasta, flour, etc). Lots of leafy greens and nothing but whole, unrefined foods.

    What happened when a group of obese Hawaiians were placed on such a diet for 21 days?

    • Energy intake dropped by 41%. This is crucial, since food intake wasn’t restricted (except for the fish and chicken). Subjects were encouraged to eat to satiety, indicating this diet was pretty good at keeping them full.
    • They lost an average of 7.8 kg. They were still obese, but far less so than before. improved. LDL and triglycerides dropped and even though HDL reduced slightly, the TC:HDL ratio improved. improved. Systolic dropped by 7.8% and diastolic by 11.5%. dropped dramatically.

    Takeaway: Paleo diets can be high or low carb. Low carb does have a bit more clinical backing, and in my experience is more effective for the severely obese and easier to adhere to, but the important thing appears to be grain/junk food/seed oil avoidance. They had “sugar,” but it was in the form of fruit. They ate “complex carbs,” but in the form of starchy vegetables. Paleo is a framework and this paper illustrates that.

    Three paleolithic ketogenic diet case studies.

    And last, but not least are three case studies. Because these involve a total of three patients (being case studies), I’ve grouped them together. Alone, a case study does not an argument make. Three separate case studies showing massive benefits for the individuals involved, on the other hand, raise even the most skeptical eyebrow.

    In the first, a 19 year old male newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (blood glucose levels of 384 mg/dL!) was placed on a ketogenic paleo diet after spending 20 unproductive days on the traditional low-fat, high-carb diabetic diet. This new diet consisted of meat (mostly red and fat-rich meat), eggs, organs, and fat, with insignificant amounts of non starchy vegetables for a fat:protein/carb ratio of 2:1. Plant-based oils and artificial sweeteners were restricted. The only supplement given was 5000 IU of vitamin D3.

    Upon going paleo-keto, his blood sugar normalized, even postprandially (after meals). He was able to stop insulin treatment following his first meal. On the original diabetic diet with supplementary insulin, his average blood sugar was 119 mg/dL. On the paleo-keto diet without insulin, his average blood sugar was 85 mg/dL. Blood sugar fluctuations also reduced from a standard deviation of 47 mg/dL to 9 mg/dL.

    After 6.5 months of the diet, he had maintained his progress without side effects. His LDL-C and total cholesterol had gone up, but that’s fairly standard on ketogenic diets.

    In the second, a 65 year old obese female with high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, angiopathy (likely diabetic), and a history of gall bladder surgery and colonic polyps was placed on a ketogenic paleo diet. She was taking anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive meds as well. On her new diet, typical foods included broth, stews, pork bone marrow, bacon, steaks, calf liver, and pork greaves (or cracklins/chicharrones). Vegetables like cabbage, onion, and root vegetables were used as garnish.

    Over the course of 22 months, she was able to discontinue eight medicines, her BMI dropped from 37.1 to 31.6 (lost 14 kilos and counting, at the time of the study’s conclusion), and a normalization of both blood pressure (along with no blood pressure spikes in the final six months) and blood sugar. That was purely from diet no supplementation, no exercise.

    In the third, a 7 year old with absence epilepsy was placed on a ketogenic paleo diet. Before the diet, she was socially withdrawn, hadn’t gained weight or height in two years, and wasn’t toilet trained she was effectively developmentally disabled.

    Based on meat, organs, fish, eggs, and animal fat, along with some vitamin D3 and fish oil, the new paleo-keto epilepsy diet had an approximate fat:protein ratio of 4:1, with very little (if any) carbohydrate. And it worked incredibly well. Seizures stopped six weeks in. She grew 3 kilograms and 6 cm in four months. Her mood and social function improved enough for her to attend regular school by study’s end.

    Takeaway: A paleo keto diet using whole foods is just as, if not more effective, than a clinical ketogenic diet using refined, processed foods, whether the patient is a youngster with epilepsy, a young man with type 1 diabetes, or a middle-aged woman with metabolic syndrome.

    However old (the Hawaiian diet study), limited in scope (the paleo-keto case studies), or small in scale (the metabolic syndrome study) these studies might be, they remain effective ambassadors for the efficacy and diversity of the ancestral approach to diet. So the next time someone says “Yeah, but what about those low-fat native islander groups?” or “But no studies exist showing you can safely eat bone marrow!” or “Ah, it’s just the weight loss helping,” you can direct them kindly to this post.

    Again, let’s hear from you down below. What are your thoughts on the studies? Any surprises? Any disagreements?

    Thanks for reading, everyone. Take care and good day.

    Prefer listening to reading? Get an audio recording of this blog post, and subscribe to the Primal Blueprint Podcast on iTunes for instant access to all past, present and future episodes here.

    Australia Reinvents the Food Pyramid with a Heavy Focus on Vegetables and No Sugar in Sight - Recipes

    /> Wheat Belly: Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health by William Davis, MD. A renowned cardiologist explains how eliminating wheat from our diets can prevent fat storage, shrink unsightly "wheat belly" bulges, and reverse myriad health problems, like minor rashes and high blood sugar. The author contends that every single human will experience health improvement by giving up modern wheat. The book provides readers with a user-friendly, step-by-step plan to navigate a new, wheat-free lifestyle. Informed by cutting-edge science and nutrition, along with case studies from men and women who have experienced life-changing transformations in their health after waving goodbye to wheat. The author's blog. Published August 30, 2011.

    /> The Paleo Solution: The Original Human Diet by Robb Wolf, a research biochemist. Readers will understand digestion, how protein, carbohydrate and fat influence hormones, and how this plays into fat loss, health or disease. They'll understand the significance of dietary fats whether the concern is performance, health, longevity, or making your fanny look good in a bikini. The book goes into how lifestyle factors such as sleep and stress influence the hormone cortisol. It gets into basic blood work and what things people should ask their doctor to include to better assess inflammation and health. It also includes a detailed 30-day meal plan and a beginner exercise program. The exercise program is geared to the beginner or someone who is quite de-conditioned but the nutritional info would be helpful for anyone regardless of background. The author's website is Robb Wolf. He likes to pass out the information via weekly podcasts. Here's a video Introduction to the book. And here is an excerpt from the book: How to Keep Feces Out of Your Bloodstream (or Lose 10 Pounds in 14 Days). The many Amazon reviews all rave about the book. Published September 14, 2010.

    /> The Paleo Diet: Lose Weight and Get Healthy by Eating the Food You Were Designed to Eat, Revised Edition by Loren Cordain. This revised edition features new weight-loss material and recipes plus the latest information drawn from breaking Paleolithic research. Published December 7, 2010. There is also an older edition available that you don't want.

    /> In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto by Michael Pollan gives a guided tour of 20th century food science, a history of "nutritionism" in America and a look at the marriage of government and the food industry. Then the book presents a commonsense shopping-and-eating guide, which like the paleo diet focuses on shopping the perimeter of the supermarket. He also now has a much shorter Food Rules: An Eater's Manual.

    /> The Paleo Diet for Athletes: A Nutritional Formula for Peak Athletic Performance by Loren Cordain and Joe Friel. New edition published October 2012.

    /> Good Calories, Bad Calories: Fats, Carbs, and the Controversial Science of Diet and Health by Gary Taubes expounds on his 2002 article in the NY Times (What if It's All Been a Big Fat Lie?) and then in Science Magazine (see below). He shows how public health data has been misinterpreted to mark dietary fat and cholesterol as the primary causes of coronary heart disease. Deeper examination, he says, shows that heart disease and other diseases of civilization appear to result from increased consumption of refined carbohydrates: sugar, white flour and white rice. Or in other words, without using the word Paleolithic, he justifies the paleo diet. Here is an excellent chapter by chapter summary of the book [].

    /> The Paleo Answer: 7 Days to Lose Weight, Feel Great, Stay Young by Loren Cordain. The author shows you how to supercharge the Paleo diet for optimal lifelong health and weight loss. Featuring a new prescriptive 7-day plan and surprising revelations from the author's original research, it's the most powerful Paleo guide yet. Published December 20, 2011.

    /> Primal Body-Primal Mind: Beyond the Paleo Diet for Total Health and a Longer Life by Nora Gedgaudas advocates a diet that our paleo ancestors ate. Meat, lots of fat, and seasonal fruits and berries when available. Basically, sugar and starchy carbs are discouraged. You can download a chapter from the author's site. She has a Primal Body, Primal Mind Radio weekly show on Voice of America. It started May 20, 2009, so there are many shows you can listen to. Published June 30, 2011.

    /> The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living: An Expert Guide to Making the Life-Saving Benefits of Carbohydrate Restriction Sustainable and Enjoyable by Stephen D. Phinney and Jeff S. Volek synthesizes the science into one readable source. The book is excellent for general low-carb high-fat moderate protein diets. While they begin with the idea that we should eat like a caveman, they do not follow the conclusion to its logical end and have us avoid the classes of foods our ancestors would have found unrecognizable. They avoid the metobolic syndrome, but not the autoimmune diseases. They mention that monosaturates should be favored, though they are not emphasized in the menu example. The book's daily menu examples also all include dairy in one form or another. No tips are given tips for those who do not do dairy. Published May 19, 2011. The Amazon reviews average to 4+.

    /> The Primal Blueprint: Reprogram your genes for effortless weight loss, vibrant health, and boundless energy by Mark Sisson is a journey through human evolution, comparing the life and robust health of our hunter-gatherer ancestors with a day in the life of a modern family. The author offers a solution in 10 empowering Blueprint Lifestyle Laws: eat lots of plants and animals, avoid poisonous things, move frequently at a slow pace, lift heavy things, sprint once in a while, get adequate sleep, play, get adequate sunlight, avoid stupid mistakes, and use your brain. The reader learns how the right high-fat diet can actually help one lose weight and how popular low-fat, grain-based diets might trigger illness, disease, and lifelong weight gain. The author presents a comprehensive, well thought out paleo style eating plan in a humorous and organized manner. He backs up all his work with research, natural wisdom, and historical timelines. He disputes the role of dietary saturated fat in causation of arteriosclerosis, the role of cholesterol in promotion of heart disease, and the costly over-promotion of expensive, potentially toxic statin drugs. He criticizes our massive overeating of refined carbohydrates and urges avoidance of grains, cereals, bread and sugar. There is specific recommendation for "primal" food including more natural healthy fats and meats, fruits, veggies, and nuts. Some reviewers consider this to be the best of the various paleo books. The many Amazon reviews average to 5 stars. The author's popular and worthwhile web site: Mark's Daily Apple. The 2nd Edition was published January 14, 2012.

    /> Bruce Fife also has a newly revised The Coconut Oil Miracle. The book describes the therapeutic properties of coconut oil. It offers a nutrition plan with dozens of recipes. The many Amazon reviews average to 4+. Many testimonials to coconut consumption.

    /> Nutrition & Physical Degeneration by Dr. Weston Price's book puts to rest a lot of myths about diet, dental, physical, and emotional health, and presents the strongest case for a super-nutritious Native (or Paleo) Diet. His book outlines the conditions/causes for exceptional health. A classic that was first published in 1938. The Soil and Health Library has a Book Review by Steve Solomon. If you don't buy the book at least read the review. N.B. If you live in one of the countries where this book is now in the public domain, you can read it online. But not if you live in a country where it is still under copyright protection.

    /> Why We Get Fat: And What to Do About It by Gary Taubes has fresh evidence for his claim that certain kinds of carbohydrates&ndashnot fats and not simply excess calories&ndashhave led to our current obesity epidemic. This book is more accessible than his first one. He covers insulin's regulation of our fat tissue. Published December 28, 2010.

    /> Sally Fallon and Mary Enig have a new Coconut Diet book called Eat Fat, Lose Fat: Lose Weight And Feel Great With The Delicious, Science-based Coconut Diet.

    /> The Sugar Addict's Total Recovery Program by Kathleen DesMaisons. While this isn't really a paleo book, it does point out issues with the foods we aren't eating. The books claims the excessive processed sugar consumed is responsible for "mood swings, depression, fatigue, fuzzy thinking, PMS, impulsivity . [and] unpredictable temper." She says her research shows indulging in sugar highs should be treated much more seriously, akin to heroin or alcohol dependency, because sugar causes spikes in the neurotransmitters serotonin and beta-dopamine just like those drugs.

    /> Protein Power: The High-Protein/Low-Carbohydrate Way to Lose Weight, Feel Fit, and Boost Your Health--in Just Weeks! by Eades and Eades was a best seller for over a year. It uses many paleo arguments for their diet recommendations. All easy to understand. The hundreds and hundreds of reviews at Amazon average to 4+ stars.

    /> The Vegetarian Myth: Food, Justice, and Sustainability by Lierre Keith is against industrial farming. She spent 20 years as a vegan, and now reveals the risks of a vegan diet, and explains why animals belong on ecologically sound farms. And as all the neolithic foods we avoid are produced on industrial farms, she is against the foods we avoid. Here's a well thought out review by Eric Wargo: Clubbing Vegetarians Over the Head With the Truth.

    /> The Great Cholesterol Con: The Truth About What Really Causes Heart Disease and How to Avoid It by Dr. Malcolm Kendrick reveals that high cholesterol levels do not cause heart disease that high-fat diets&ndashsaturated or otherwise&ndashdo not affect blood cholesterol levels and that for most men and all women the benefits offered by statins are negligible at best. Other data is also provided that shows that statins have many more side affects than is often acknowledged.

    /> Dangerous Grains by James Braly and Ron Hoggan is the most comprehensive book ever written about the effects of gluten containing grains on the body. Includes a list of almost 200 diseases at the back of the book.

    /> Life Without Bread: How a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Can Save Your Life by Christian B. Allan, Wolfgang Lutz. It is based on Dr. Lutz's work with thousands of patients in Austria. It deals with the health issues connected to high carb consumption. It is basically an English version and update of Dr. Lutz's 1967 book with the same title: Leben ohne Brot. He recommends eating only 72 grams of carbohydrates, and an unlimited amount of fat. And provides evidence as to why this is the healthiest diet. Read the review at Amazon by Todd Moody (it will be first!). See excerpts from his earlier edition: Dismantling a Myth: The Role of Fat and Carbohydrates in our Diet

    /> Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils and Cholesterol by Mary G. Enig presents a thorough, in-depth, and understandable look at the world of lipids. There are several very thorough Amazon reviews, especially the review by Stephen Byrnes. The numerous Amazon ratings average to 4+ stars.

    /> Lights Out: Sleep, Sugar, and Survival recommends a very paleo-like diet, and they also make a good argument for electric lighting as a major contributor to modern health problems. It's written in a very magazinish, overblown style, but the reasoning is overall sound.

    /> Diana Schwarzbein is another M.D. that has come to realize that low carb is what works. See reviews at The Schwarzbein Principle. The book is based on her work with insulin-resistant patients with Type II diabetes. She concludes that low-fat diets cause heart attacks, eating fat makes you lose body fat, and it's important to eat high-cholesterol foods every day.

    /> The No-Grain Diet: Conquer Carbohydrate Addiction and Stay Slim for Life by Dr. Joseph Mercola and Alison Rose Levy argues that the secret to lasting weight loss is to cut out starches, sweets and grains entirely. (Dieters on the maintenance program are allowed "healthy" grains-buckwheat, quinoa, etc.)

    /> Ignore the Awkward! How the Cholesterol Myths Are Kept Alive by Uffe Ravnskov. Of his three books this is the newest and shortest. A good book review is Tom Naughton's Dr. Ravnskov's New Book: Ignore the Awkward!. All reviewers at Amazon give it 5 stars. Published January 10, 2010.

    /> Pottenger's Cats: A Study in Nutrition by Francis Marion Pottenger, Jr. MD is a classic in the science of nutrition. Dr. Pottenger discovered that cats degenerated unless they were fed raw food.

    /> The New Evolution Diet: What Our Paleolithic Ancestors Can Teach Us about Weight Loss, Fitness, and Aging by Arthur De Vany. Art is the grandfather of the "Paleo Lifestyle" movement. The plan is built on three principles: (1) eat three meals a day made up of nonstarchy vegetables, fruits, and lean proteins (2) skip meals occasionally to promote a low fasting blood insulin level and (3) exercise less, not more, in shorter, high-intensity bursts. Note that the book is anti-fat. All oils are to be avoided, though canola is considered okay for higher temperatures. Egg yolks are to be skipped now and then. Published December 21, 2010.

    /> We Want to Live: The Primal Diet (2005 Expanded Edition) is a book by Aajonus Vonderplanitz. His basic philosophy is that (a) food is to be eaten in a live, raw condition and (b) a diet rich in raw fats and raw meats from natural sources is essential to health. However his diet includes massive amounts of raw dairy. From the Planets is a book review by Ralph W. Moss. The Live-Food Mailing List discusses the concepts of this book.

    /> Fat and Cholesterol are Good for You by Uffe Ravnskov is a new book which includes updated and simplified sections from his previous one (The Cholesterol Myths). Ravnskov also presents his own idea about the cause of heart disease, an idea that explains all the findings that do not fit with the present view. It is a powerful book. Also see his web site. The reviews average to 5 stars. Published January 26, 2009.

    /> The Paleolithic Prescription: A Program of Diet & Exercise and a Design for Living by S. Boyd Eaton, M.D., Marjorie Shostak and Melvin Konner. This book, published in 1988, was the start of the Paleolithic diet movement. Its recommendations are not in line with what today is considered a paleo diet, as whole grain breads and pastas, legumes and some low fat dairy products are allowed. However, it is still a profoundly important book. Used books are available for a reasonable price.

    /> Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human by Richard Wrangham. This book argues that the ease of digestion and the added nutritional value available in cooked food was the key behind the explosion of human intelligence. (Cooking gelatinizes starch, denatures protein, and softens all foods, permitting more complete digestion and energy extraction. As a result, the food processing apparatus shrinks, freeing energy to support a larger brain.) He then suggests that cooking led to what eventually became marriage and the sexual division of labor. The two most helpful reviews at Amazon get into great detail. The reviews average to 4+ stars.

    /> Going Against the Grain: How Reducing and Avoiding Grains Can Revitalize Your Health by Melissa Diane Smith deals with a much broader range of health problems associated with grains and one Amazon reviewer argues is better than the Mercola book.

    /> Paleoista: Gain Energy, Get Lean, and Feel Fabulous With the Diet You Were Born to Eat by Nell Stephenson. Paleoista is not only a how-to book, it is also a glimpse into the life of a woman who gives advice on how to eat this way, and lives the life, day in and day out. The author's websites: Nutrition & Fitness and To be published May 1, 2012.

    /> Deadly Harvest: The Intimate Relationship Between Our Health and Our Food by Geoff Bond. The author is a nutritional anthropologist who has for years investigated both foods of the past and our prehistoric eating habits. Using the latest scientific research and studies of primitive tribal lifestyles, Bond first explains the actual diet that our ancestors followed--a diet that was and still is in harmony with the human species. He then describes how the foods in today's diets disrupt our biochemistry and digestive system, leading to health disorders such as allergies, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis, obesity, and more. Most important, he explains the appropriate measures we can take to avoid these diseases--and even beat them back--through healthy eating. The conclusions of Deadly Harvest are that disease control happens by eating a strict low-glycemic diet, lowering the percentage of body fat you carry around, eat a diet consisting of mostly non-starchy plant-based foods, eat a low-fat diet with ample amounts of omega-3 fats, maintain good colon health, engage in regular physical activity, get some daily sunshine, and reduce chronic stress. If you do this, then diseases like cancer, heart disease, digestive problems, allergies, autoimmune diseases, brain diseases, diabetes, and obesity can be avoided. The Amazon reviews average to 5 stars.

    /> Trick And Treat - how 'healthy eating' is making us ill by Barry Groves. The author is one of the world's most outspoken proponents of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet. This book is an account of how and why the health-care establishment has got the concept of 'healthy eating' so wrong. Whereas Taubes work (see above) is a fairly straight forward review of the existing science, Groves expands into the politics of medical research and treatment to a much greater extent. "Trick and Treat" is divided into two parts. Part One describes the corruption in the health industry, points out the problems inherent in a high-carb, low-fat diet, and then prescribes a diet that leads to good health. The prescribed diet is high in fat - specifically animal fat, not polyunsaturated vegetable fat - and low in carbohydrates, with 60-70% of calories from fat, 15-25% of calories from protein, and a mere 10-15% of calories from carbohydrates. Part Two describes numerous diseases the author claims are the result of high carbohydrate consumption. These range from life-threatening disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer to less serious problems such as acne, near-sightedness and dental problems. The Amazon reviews average to 4+ stars.

    /> The Great Cholesterol Con by Anthony Colpo. The definitive book on the non-dangers of dietary cholesterol and saturated fat was The Cholesterol Myths by Uffe Ravnskov, 2000. This book is six years newer. Its forward is by Uffe Ravnskov. To get a wonderful description of the book read the leading review at Amazon. The many reviews there average to 5 stars.

    /> Man Eating Bugs: The Art and Science of Eating Insects by Peter Menzel and Faith D'Aluisio gets laudatory reviews at Amazon.

    /> Evolution of the Human Diet: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable by Peter S. Ungar. Diet is key to understanding the ecology and evolution of our distant ancestors and their kin, the early hominins. A study of the range of foods eaten by our progenitors underscores just how unhealthy many of our diets are today. This volume brings together authorities from disparate fields to offer new insights into the diets of our ancestors. Paleontologists, archaeologists, primatologists, nutritionists and other researchers all contribute pieces to the puzzle. The book has four sections: Reconstructed diets based on hominin fossils--tooth size, shape, structure, wear, and chemistry, mandibular biomechanics. Archaeological evidence of subsistence--stone tools and modified bones. Models of early hominin diets based on the diets of living primates--both human and non-human, paleoecology, and energetics. Nutritional analyses and their implications for evolutionary medicine.

    /> Food and Western Disease: Health and nutrition from an evolutionary perspective by Staffan Lindeberg (MD at Lund University in Sweden) is the newest book promoting the paleo diet. It covers the link between diet and disease in the Western world (all major diseases, including cancer, heart disease, obesity, stroke and dementia) and towards a greater knowledge of what can be defined as the optimal human diet. Benefits and risks are detailed. The Amazon reviews are all 5 stars. Especially read Susan Schenck's detailed review. You can read a preview at Google Books

    /> NeanderThin: Eat Like a Caveman to Achieve a Lean, Strong, Healthy Body (Hardcover) by Ray Audette, with Troy Gilchrist, was one of the early paleo diet authors. His home page NeanderThin [now restored from] has a diet based on the ideas of paleolithic nutrition. The diet can be followed as a low-carb, moderate or high carb diet, depending upon whether and how much fruit is used. You can read up through page 19 of the book at Google Books. The original press release from 1999. [The webmaster has an extra copy with the author's signature for sale. It has the original lime-purple cover. Pristine new condition. $60 (shipping included). Paypal only. Use e-mail link at page bottom.]

    /> Meat-Eating and Human Evolution (Human Evolution Series) is a an expensive book that address the questions surrounding when, how, and why early humans began to eat meat. See and read the sample pages.

    /> The Carnitine Miracle by Robert Crayhon, M.S. The nutrient carnitine is abundant in red meat. According to Crayhon carnitine helps balance blood lipids and blood sugar levels, maximizes energy levels, increases endurance, eliminates discomfort in ketosis, promotes burning of fat and building of muscle and increases overall well-being. See reviews at Amazon.

    /> The Evolution Diet: All-Natural and Allergy Free by Joseph SB Morse. Included in this edition is a detailed section on the most common food allergies and intolerances: dairy, egg, peanut, seafood, shellfish, soy, tree nut, and wheat (including celiac).

    /> The Dietary Cure for Acne by Loren Cordain PH.D. describes how acne happens and then shows the relationship between the food we eat and acne. The diet is paleo-like and very strict. Many reviews rave about their success and the reviews average to 5 stars.

    /> Food in Antiquity: A Survey of the Diet of Early Peoples (Expanded Edition) by Don R. Brothwell and Patricia Brothwell is a survey of what is known archaeologically about food and drink in pre-modern times. The chapter on insects includes their food value. In beverages it covers what happens to a neglected jar of fruit juice. Under cannibalism it shows evidence of this being done in paleo times, thought most of the work focuses on the classical and near-eastern civilizations, but occasional mention is made of the mesoamerican cultures as well. There is taxonomic and anatomical information.

    /> Human Diet: Its Origin and Evolution edited by Peter S. Ungar & Mark F. Teaford. This volume brings together experts in human and primate ecology, paleontology, and evolutionary medicine. Authors offer their unique perspectives on the evolution of the human diet and the implications of recent changes in diet for health and nutrition today.

    /> TBK Fitness Program by Tamir Katz shows how to achieve fitness through a healthy, natural hunter-gatherer diet along with a comprehensive exercise program with over 60 different bodyweight exercises of varying difficulty targeting all of the muscles in the body. Also included is a detailed discussion of nutrition and the diseases of civilization based on scientific research, information on stress management and preventive medicine, recommendations on vitamin and supplement use, tips on how to make your fitness program succeed where others have failed, tips on food shopping and preparation, sample meals, and more. The Amazon reviews average to 4+ stars.

    /> Paleonutrition by Mark Q. Sutton, Kristin D. Sobolik, and Jill K. Gardner is the analysis of prehistoric human diets and the interpretation of dietary intake in relation to health and nutrition. This is a substantial text that combines background to paleonutrition, an extensive bibliography, a discussion on methods, and case studies. Published February 23, 2010.

    /> Paul Burke's Neo-Dieter's Handbook: When We Lost Our Nutritional Roots Where to Find These Foods Today by Paul Burke M. Ed. The book focuses on nutrition, the right nutrition to enhance health, exercise, weight training, and fitness. The diet consists of lean protein, vegetables, nuts, and fruit. He is opposed to grains. He wants you to stay away from grain-fed meat. The single review at gives the book 5 stars. Published August 21, 2009.

    /> Cancer: Disease of Civilization? An anthropological and historical study by Vilhjalmur Stefansson. This classic shows what happens before and after tribes were "civilized." Covers day-to-day experience of Eskimo life. Published in 1960. Used copies are available at a steep price. To read it get it on inter-library loan. Another of his many books My Life with the Eskimo (New Edition) is available.

    /> Primitive Man and His Food by Arnold Paul De Vries. Published in 1952 this is the first book with an evolutionary component and could be considered the beginning of the paleo diet movement. Used copies are available on Amazon.

    /> The Stone Age Diet: Based on in-depth studies of human ecology and the diet of man by Walter L. Voegtlin. This was self-published back in 1975. Only a couple hundred copies were printed and distributed to friends and relatives. No one knew the book existed until some years later. In no way is he the father of the paleo diet. It is impossible to purchase. Apparently his descendents are planning a reprint, though the book is poorly written and not based upon factual anthropological information that even was available then. We have put up his Functional and Structural Comparison of Man's Digestive Tract with that of a Dog and Sheep. And there is a PDF of the book.

    /> Eat Like a Dinosaur: Recipe & Guidebook for Gluten-free Kids by Paleo Parents. The Book is a colorful children's story describing the paleo diet, chock-full of recipes without grains, dairy, soy or refined sugar. For those with food allergies, the top 8 allergens have been visually marked on each recipe for children to self-identify recipes that may contain eggs, nuts, fish, or shellfish. Published March 20, 2012.

    /> Paleo Pals: Jimmy and the Carrot Rocket Ship by Sarah Fragoso. Piper, Phoenix and Parker are not ordinary children&ndashthey are super heroes that travel the land helping other children learn about living the healthiest, most exciting, most super lives possible. They are known as The Paleo Pals, and this is a story about how they help out Jimmy, a little boy who is not sure if eating paleo food is even one tiny bit exciting or super. Published February 7, 2012.

    /> Paleo Comfort Foods: Homestyle Cooking in a Gluten-Free Kitchen by Julie Sullivan Mayfield and Charles Mayfield. Implementing paleo guidelines and principles in this book (no grains, no gluten, no legumes, no dairy), the Mayfields give you 100+ recipes and full color photos with entertaining stories throughout. The recipes in Paleo Comfort Foods can help individuals and families alike lose weight, eat healthy and achieve optimum fitness, making this way of eating sustainable, tasty and fun. The many reviews at Amazon are basically flawless. The sole complaint is over the lack of nutritional information. But there is no counting on the paleo diet and its inclusion would have been inappropriate. Published September 10, 2011.

    /> Well Fed: Paleo Recipes for People Who Love to Eat by Melissa Joulwan has recipes for food that you can eat every day, along with easy tips to make sure it takes as little time as possible to prepare. All recipes are made with zero grains, legumes, soy, sugar, dairy, or alcohol. Calorie-dense ingredients like dried fruit and nuts show up as flavoring, instead of primary ingredients. It will also show you how to how to mix and match basic ingredients with spices and seasonings that take your taste buds on a world tour. With 115+ original recipes and variations. The author is a popular blogger at The Clothes Make The Girl. All Amazon reviews are positive. Published December 12, 2011.

    /> Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook that Challenges Politically Correct Nutrition and the Diet Dictocrat by Mary G. Enig, Ph.D. and Sally Fallon. The premise is the culinary traditions of our ancestors, and the food choices and preparation techniques of healthy nonindustrialized peoples, should serve as the model for contemporary eating habits. However, they push whole grains and dairy, which aren't Paleolithic.

    /> The Paleo Diet Cookbook: More than 150 recipes for Paleo Breakfasts, Lunches, Dinners, Snacks, and Beverages by Loren Cordain. Also contains two weeks of meal plans and shopping and pantry tips. Helps you lose weight and boost your health and energy by focusing on lean protein and non-starchy vegetables and fruits. Note that this is a very low-fat book and is being marketed as such. Published December 7, 2010.

    /> Primal Blueprint Quick and Easy Meals: Delicious, Primal-approved meals you can make in under 30 minutes by Mark Sisson and Jennifer Meier. Every recipe is accompanied by an ingredient list, a nutrient list, clearly written instructions, and a picture of the ingredients and a picture of the finished product. Note that this is a primal book and many recipes include dairy. Published March 25, 2011.

    /> Everyday Paleo by Sarah Fragoso. Includes simple starter guide, family-friendly menus, stress-free fitness plan, eatng out survival guide, essential tips for getting the family onboard, and much more. If you have a family and you want to get them paleo, this is the cookbook to get. Published April 25, 2011.

    /> Make it Paleo: Over 200 Grain Free Recipes For Any Occasion by Bill Staley and Hayley Mason. The book shows you how easy it is to take any dish and Make it Paleo! Adapted from Chinese, French, Mexican and classic American meals, the over 200 recipes are each accompanied by good photos and notes to ensure you recreate each dish with ease. Most recipes are ones that can be found in an ordinary cookbook. Butter and vinegar are also used, which I do not consider paleo. Published October 20, 2011.

    /> The Primal Blueprint Cookbook: Primal, Low Carb, Paleo, Grain-Free, Dairy-Free and Gluten-Free by Mark Sisson and Jennifer Meier. Recipes include: Roasted Leg of Lamb with Herbs and Garlic, Salmon Chowder with Coconut Milk, Tomatoes Stuffed with Ground Bison and Eggs, and Baked Chocolate Custard. Recipes are simple and have limited ingredients. Complaints are the book is stuffed with unnecessary photos and proofreading could have been better, e.g. oven temperatures were left out. And recipes are not truly paleo. Despite what is on the cover dairy is used in some recipes. The Amazon reviews average to 4+ stars.

    /> Mary Bell's Complete Dehydrator Cookbook is the classic dehydrating cookbook. Mary has spent more than twenty years traveling around the country demonstrating food dehydrators and food drying techniques.

    /> The Lazy Paleo Enthusiast's Cookbook: A Collection of Practical Recipes and Advice on How to Eat Healthy, Tasty Food While Spending as Little Time in the Kitchen as Possible by Sean Robertson. The author is a recovering vegan and in the first half of the book recounts his dietary experiences using some paleo foods to restore his health. You learn that the author's main strategy is to make food in large batches which can be reheated to provide dinners for several days running. The second half of the book contains 28 recipes. Some borderline or nonpaleo ingredients do appear, but most of the recipes are more paleo than not. Published November 15, 2011.

    /> The Complete Idiot's Guide to Eating Paleo by Neely Quinn and Jason Glaspey. The book explains the diet of our hunter/gather ancestors, as well as the long-term benefits associated with it. Includes key diet guidance as well as over 100 delicious recipes. The author's site is PaleoPlan. Published April 3, 2012.

    /> Eat WELL Feel GOOD: Practical Paleo Living by Diane Frampton has over 200 recipes that makes paleo eating simple, delicious, and ultimately, intuitive. So they claim. There are only a few reviews at Amazon. They all like the book, but their lack of details makes it appear that they are not truly independent reviews. The recipes have a Crossfit appeal to them. Chef Rachel Albert has posted some recipes from the book [].

    /> The Garden of Eating: A Produce-Dominated Diet & Cookbook by Rachel Albert-Matesz and Don Matesz presents evidence for a diet of vegetables, fruits, and pasture-fed animal products. Provides a practical plan and 250 delicious, family-friendly, grain- and dairy-free recipes. Buy from the author's page The Garden of Eating. Rachel's blog The Healthy Cooking Coach. The cookbook maintains a perfect rating at Amazon.

    • The Dietitian's Guide to Eating Bugs by Daniel Calder is a comprehensive guide to the nutritional content of insects. He believes insect breeding and consumption are important elements sustainable living, particularly when it comes to complementing foraged plant material with meat products. Numerous insects contain nutrients similar to those found in more conventional livestock, except the feed to conversion ratio is much higher and they're much cheaper to breed. You can find the book at scribd. Also available in e-book format for $35.
    • The Paleo Recipe Book was published January 2011 with over 370 recipes. It is 396 pages full of photos. Recipes appear to be a strict paleo. Includes 8 Weeks Meal Plan and Herbs & Spices Guide. You download the PDF. This is the most popular web book. Click banner.
    • Matt Metzgar wrote a free PDF web book The Stone Age Power [] on diet and exercise from an evolutionary perspective. Also see his blog Musings on Big Ideas, Health, and Other Topics. by Dr Sandler is a web site on a 50 year old book where he argues that low blood sugar, due to a high carb diet, makes one susceptible to polio, and other viruses and disease. He did research showing that a meat based diet, very low carb, keeps blood sugar stable.
    • From September to December, 1997, Robert McFerran posted draft chapters of his book, Arthritis - Searching for the Truth - Searching for the Cure, to the Ask Dr Stoll Bulletin Board. Includes his view of human history and its relationship to dietary needs.
    • For many years Arthur De Vany Ph.D. has been writing a book called Evolutionary Fitness on "What Evolution Teaches Us About How to Live and Stay Healthy." The diet he follows fits into my core diet definition. He may have been the first one to use the paleo diet to maximize fitness. His current site is Art's Blog on Fitness, Health, Aging, Nutrition and Exercise [].
    • Online books on the Post-Paleo Hunza people: The Wheel of Health by G.T. Wrench, M.D. And with more effort: High Road to Hunza by Barbara Mons. The Healthy Hunzas by J.I. Rodale.
    • Ian Tattersall has written Becoming Human: Evolution and Human Uniqueness . In Chapter One at the beginning their is a discussion of the diet about 40 kyr ago.

    Vibram FiveFingers:

    There are two lines of barefoot shoes. The more popular, but much more radical, are Vibram's FiveFingers. You can find the various styles at Two of the popular styles are discussed below.

    /> When you're scrambling up a rocky bluff or bounding along a riverbank, the last thing you want is gravel and grit seeping into your FiveFingers. The Vibram FiveFingers KSO is an all-new design with thin, abrasion-resistant stretch polyamide and breathable stretch mesh that wraps your entire forefoot to "Keep Stuff Out." A single hook-and-loop closure helps secure the fit. Non-marking Vibram TC1 performance rubber soles are razor-siped for a sure grip. KSO IS BEST FOR: Light Trekking, Climbing, Canyoneering, Running, Fitness Training, Martial Arts, Yoga, Pilates, Sailing, Boating, Kayaking, Canoeing, Surfing, Flats Fishing, Travel. Available in Black or Grey/Palm/Clay.

    /> The Vibram Fivefingers KSO Trek is a more rugged version of the popular KSO. Made from K-100 high performance kangaroo leather, the KSO Trek boasts extreme strength for excellent durability amazing breathability perspiration resistance to prevent sweat damage and prolong shoe life and features MicrobloK anti-microbial treatment. These Vibram shoes are made for rugged outdoor use, providing grip and traction over a variety of surfaces. Additionally, the individual toe pockets separate and strengthen toes to improve balance, agility, and range of motion while the thin EVA midsole and Vibram Performance rubber outsole allows your feet to move the way nature intended. The Vibram FiveFingers KSO Trek Shoes are perfect for light trekking, trail running, fitness walking, and travel.


    The line of VivoBarefoot shoes have a design based on the simple principle that being barefoot is the healthiest way for you and your feet to be. An ultra thin (3mm) puncture resistant sole allows your feet to be as millions of years of evolutionary design intended Barefoot! There are many styles with each in many colors. Plus many more styles that are not available through Many of them are conventionally styled and can be worn to work. For the current models see One style is discussed below.

    /> The EVO is designed to be the ultimate minimalist running shoe. The TPU Cage has breathable mesh and lightweight micro fiber reinforcements for maximum breathability and support while only weighing in at 7 ounces. The updated slim line VivoBarefoot shape and new ultra thin (4mm) soft rubber sole give maximum barefoot performance and response. The EVO is like running barefoot, but a little bit better. 100% Vegan.

    Hash Browns

    These oven baked hash browns provide you with an experience reminiscent of a fried hash brown but without the detrimental frying process and high-fat content. Most of all, they taste great! Serve them alone or with Medical Medium ketchup or hot sauce for a meal or snack anytime.

    Potatoes are one of the most powerful anti-viral foods. Viruses are behind countless chronic illnesses, symptoms, and conditions. They&rsquore high in lysine and also contain tyrosine, a chemical needed to produce thyroid hormones.

    Hash Browns

    • 1 lb small to medium-sized potatoes
    • 1/2 tsp paprika
    • 1/2 tsp garlic powder
    • 1/2 tsp onion powder
    • 1/4 tsp cayenne (optional)
    • Chives or parsley, to serve
    • 1/4 cup ketchup or hot sauce, to serve

    Place the potatoes in steamer or colander set over a pan of boiling water. Cover with a lid and steam for 5 minutes only. Remove and cool completely.

    Preheat oven to 200C/400F. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper.

    Grate the potatoes and place them in a bowl together with the paprika, garlic powder, onion powder, and cayenne (if using). Mix well.

    Scoop 1/4 cup of the potato mixture into the baking sheet, pressing down until it is about 1/2-inch thick in your desired shape.

    Bake the hash browns for 10 minutes on one side, then carefully flip them over using a flat spatula. Continue cooking for 15-20 minutes or until the potatoes are tender and crisp on top.

    Serve hash browns immediately with ketchup or hot sauce.

    The Food Industry and the Evolution of the Plant-based dietary guidelines

    The food industry, and in particular Coca-Cola, had a long history of agitation and lobbying against regulation and policy. Even Harvey Washington Wiley, a doctor and a chemist who recognized early on the need to regulate the adulteration of food, couldn’t stop their influence despite years of lobbying to introduce the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906.

    By 1912 he resigned from the Chemistry Bureau because he felt he had been antagonized in the process of enforcement of the Pure Food and Drug Act and became increasingly frustrated by the fundamental principles of that Act that were continually paralyzed, or discredited, by industry lobbyists.

    I guess not much has changed…

    Harvey Wiley was far happier working at the Good Housekeeping Institute laboratories writing columns in Women’s Magazines to help women make an informed choice about what they fed their families.

    Everything changed in 1942

    Charles Glen King, a research biochemist known for his isolation of vitamin C, was an active pioneer researcher in the young science of nutrition.

    In 1942 he became the director of the newly formed Nutrition Foundation and made it the leading private supporter of nutrition research for the next 21 years. He was personally responsible for strengthening many nutrition departments in U.S. universities and successfully enlisted industry support in these efforts.

    It also allowed provision of a patent policy - adopted to ensure research findings were to be made available to industry with full protection of public interest.

    As Scientific Director and President of the Nutrition Foundation, Charles Glen King helped establish the Recommended Dietary Allowances and the Protein Advisory Group, the International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS) and grant programs in nutrition and biochemistry in the National Institutes of Health.

    He was acknowledged as having a unique ability to identify young scientists at the beginning of their career and provide them with support through the Nutrition Foundation for their early research.

    Enter Dr Frederick Stare.

    Enter Dr Frederick Stare as chairman of the newly formed nutrition department at Harvard - the first of its kind in any medical or health centre worldwide!

    Remember I mentioned Mervyn Hardinge earlier? He did his doctoral dissertation in the 1950’s under Frederick Stare, when vegetarianism/vegan diets were first proven for health.

    Walter Willett wrote about their study and the alliance between the two university's - “In more than 300 papers of health-related research studies among Seventh-day Adventists, it is notable that the first 3 citations were co-authored by Drs Mervyn Hardinge and Fred Stare… Thus, from the beginning of the Adventist Health Studies, an important interaction has existed between the Department of Nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health and Loma Linda Adventist University."

    Let’s take a step back. This diagram was published in Present Illness, a Harvard Alumni Bulletin in 1974. But I have made a clearer version below.

    In his autobiography, Adventures in Nutrition, Fred Stare states that he was the director of the Continental Canning Company owned by his father and that Harvard University held 68,737,500 shares in the company. He wrote that in 1960 he obtained a grant of $1,026,000 from General Foods for the "expansion of the School’s Nutrition Research Laboratories" and over the 44-year period as a nutritionist he raised a total of nearly $30,000,000

    The Nutrition Foundation at Harvard was founded from the investment of 5 food industries, including $2,000,000 from Kellogg's.

    Fred Stare was the first editor of the Foundations' publication Nutrition Reviews.

    John Hess writes in his article Harvard's Sugar-Pushing Nutritionist "As an adviser to the US government, Stare rejected the idea that 'the American diet' was harmful stating for example - that Coca-Cola was "a healthy between-meals snack" and that eating even great amounts of sugar would not cause health problems.

    In 2007 Dr. Cristin Kearns discovered papers on how the sugar industry funded seminal research downplaying the role of sugar in heart disease. She said “Stare and Hegsted tore apart studies that implicated sugar and concluded that there was only one dietary modification needed - changing fat and cholesterol intake that could prevent coronary heart disease."

    In 1977, the New York Times reported that Mark Hegsted "helped draft Dietary Goals for the United States,” a report issued by the Senate after it held hearings on the national diet. The report, also known as the McGovern report after George McGovern, the South Dakota Democrat who was chairman of the Senate committee, recommended a lighter diet rich in fruits, grains and vegetables as a way to reduce the risk of diabetes, heart attacks and other chronic diseases. It is considered a precursor of the more detailed “Dietary Guidelines for Americans,” a federal review of nutrition and health that is published every five years."

    "From 1978 to 1982, Dr. Hegsted was administrator of the human nutrition unit at the Department of Agriculture and opened the department’s Human Nutrition Center."

    Mark Hegsted was the second editor of the Nutrition Foundations' publication Nutrition Reviews.

    Alex Malaspina and the International Life Sciences Institute

    During the aftermath of the McGovern report and introduction of our low-fat dietary guidelines Alex Malaspina (then Vice-President of Coca-Cola) founded the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) in 1978.

    The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) took over the publication of Nutrition Reviews in 1982 and today it is still ranked in the top 10 nutrition journals in the world for doctors, dietitians and other health professionals. The ILSI-Nutrition Foundation was created in 1985 as a merger between the ILSI and the Nutrition Foundation Inc.

    Its membership consists of more than 400 of 'the world’s leading manufacturers of food and food ingredients, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and other consumer products', and includes Coca-Cola, Kellogg’s, Monsanto, Nestlé, Procter & Gamble, Pfizer and Sanofi-Aventis group.

    I have already spoken about Exercise is Medicine™ but I would just like to share a couple more points about Lifestyle Medicine before leaving you to consider all that I have talked about.

    Lifestyle Medicine

    Just a reminder that Adventist - John H. Kelly Jr., MD founded the Christian Association of Lifestyle Medicine at Loma Linda University in 2003 which became the American College of Lifestyle Medicine (ACLM) in 2004.

    During a 2007 interview with a group of doctors involved in the fledgling ACLM, the New York Times journalist Kate Murphy noted some doctors say the movement suffers from fringe elements that advocate unproven strategies like strict vegan diets and daily saunas.

    “Lifestyle medicine has to be scientifically based to distinguish it from all the quackery out there,” said David R. Brown, senior behavioral scientist in the division of nutrition and physical activity at the disease control center.

    Dr. Kelly agreed. “We need to have a certification process in place with rigorous, evidence-based standards,” he said.

    I won’t go into any more of my research into the Seventh-day Adventists involved here, nor the food industry alliances (both Adventist and non-Adventist) with the Lifestyle Medicine movement, but just know that it is extensive. There is very little acknowledgment in the promotion of Lifestyle Medicine conferences, nor in the accreditation/board certification courses on offer, about the involvement of the Church nor members of the Church who have a potential bias with a pro-cereal/grain anti-meat message.

    To be honest, Lifestyle Medicine is exactly what we need to turn around the tsunami of lifestyle related disease. There is no doubt a like-minded community of people to support us make, and sustain lifestyle changes, will improve health outcomes. I also like that the Lifestyle Medicine movement has a big focus on prevention of disease, and management without drugs as the first line of defense.

    My concern are the following 2 statements...

    Dr George Guthrie is a Seventh-day Adventist. He is the current president of the American College of Lifestyle Medicine and recently announced their dietary North Star stating “For the treatment, reversal and prevention of lifestyle-related chronic disease, the ACLM recommends an eating plan based predominantly on a variety of minimally processed vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds” . which sounds very much like the Garden of Eden diet prophesied by Ellen G White.

    In the same article Dr George Guthrie went on to say that "there have been numerous epidemiological studies through the years, both prospective and cross sectional - as well as carefully controlled animal studies, showing that increasing animal protein and fats leads to an increase in disease," claiming "We have a growing stream of evidence that animal protein may actually cause or worsen health problems.”